U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Diabetes A-Z

Diabetes topics are listed in alphabetical order. Select a letter to locate a disease or condition, diagnostic test, or anatomy topic.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) conducts, supports, and coordinates research on many of the most serious diseases affecting public health. The NIDDK cannot provide medical advice for individuals. The information provided here is informed by NIDDK research, reviewed by doctors, and provided to help you understand more about the diseases and conditions you or your loved ones may face. The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health, the medical research agency of the United States.​​
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A


About Low Blood Glucose

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

Actos and Avandia (Thiazolidinediones)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.



African Americans, Hemoglobin Variants, Sickle Cell Trait, and the A1C Test


See
 For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

Alimentación y la diabetes (Eating and Diabetes)


See
 What I need to know about Eating and Diabetes

Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

Describes devices for taking insulin in addition to needles and syringes. Describes the artificial pancreas and potential continuous glucose monitoring and insulin delivery systems.


Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes

Defines diabetes and reviews signs and symptoms of the disease. Discusses the risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes and ways it can be prevented.

Amaryl, DiaBeta, Diabinese, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Glynase PresTab, Micronase, tolazamide, and tolbutamide (Sulfonylureas)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

American Indians, Alaska Natives and Diabetes


See
 I Can Lower MY Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Guide for American Indians


Asian Americans, Hemoglobin Variants, Sickle Cell Trait, and the A1C Test


See
 For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests


B


Be Active When You Have Diabetes

Landing page includes very easy-to-read (second- to third-grade reading level) materials help people with diabetes learn about the benefits of being physically active and ways to increase their activity level.



Blood Glucose and Diabetes


See
 Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers




Byetta (Incretin Mimetic)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

C




Causes of Diabetes

Defines diabetes and discusses the causes of type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Describes genetic, environmental, and other factors associated with the development of diabetes.





Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder

Explains how working kidneys contribute to healthy bones and why kidney disease can lead to bone problems. Covers diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease.



Comparing Tests for Diabetes and Prediabetes

Provides a concise summary for health care providers of blood tests for diabetes and prediabetes, covering uses, technical features, and pros and cons of different tests.

Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Describes devices that check blood glucose levels continuously. Describes the artificial pancreas and potential continuous glucose monitoring and insulin delivery systems.



D

Daily Diabetes Record

Daily Diabetes Record



Devices for Taking Insulin


See
 Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

Diabetes and American Indians/Alaska Natives


See
 I Can Lower MY Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Guide for American Indians


Diabetes and Kidney Disease


See
 Kidney Disease of Diabetes



Diabetes Causes


See
 Causes of Diabetes

Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)

Describes the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, conducted by the NIDDK from 1983 to 1993, and the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study.






Diabetes Prevention Program

The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was a major multicenter clinical research study aimed at discovering whether modest weight loss through dietary changes and increased physical activity or treatment with the oral diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage) could prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in study participants.


Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

Describes the relationship between heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. Provides information about risk factors, prevention, types of heart disease, diagnosis, and treatment.




Diabetic Kidney Disease

Explains how diabetes can lead to chronic kidney disease and reviews the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments for diabetic kidney disease. This publication is also available in Spanish.

Diabetic Neuropathies: The Nerve Damage of Diabetes

Reviews the causes and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy and explains the different types of neuropathies: peripheral, autonomic, proximal, and focal. Diagnosis and treatment are also discussed.


Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes

Contains general information about diabetes and prediabetes and how they are diagnosed. Discusses risk factors, recommendations for when to be tested, evaluation of body mass index, and steps to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.

Diagnostic Testing for Diabetes and Prediabetes (for Health Care Professionals)


See
 Comparing Tests for Diabetes and Prediabetes



Directory of Diabetes Organizations

The directory lists Government agencies and voluntary associations that provide diabetes information and resources available from the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse.



E

Ectopic Kidney

Explains the causes and complications of ectopic kidney, a birth defect in which a kidney is located in an abnormal position. Describes the diagnostic procedures and treatment options for the condition.




F



Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG)


See
 Comparing Tests for Diabetes and Prediabetes


Financial Help for Diabetes Care

Reviews private health insurance, government health insurance, and other health care services for people with diabetes. Lists organizations and local resources that address various financial concerns.



For People of African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian Heritage: Important Information about Diabetes Blood Tests

Describes hemoglobin variants how they can cause false results for the A1C test. Discusses how false results can affect diabetes diagnosis and care in people with hemoglobin variants.



G

Gastroparesis

Defines gastroparesis and describes the symptoms, diagnosis, complications, and treatment.



Gestational Diabetes Causes

Defines diabetes and discusses the causes of type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Describes genetic, environmental, and other factors associated with the development of diabetes. Causes of Diabetes



Glaucoma

Links to Facts About Diabetic Retinopathy from the National Eye Institute

Glucophage, Glucophage XR, and Riomet (Biguanides)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.


Glucose Monitoring


See
 Continuous Glucose Monitoring

Glucose Tolerance Test


See
 Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes


Glyset and Precose (Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.


H

Heart Disease and Diabetes


See
 Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke








Hypertension and Kidney Disease


See
 High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

Hypoglycemia

Defines and explains the causes, symptoms, prevention, and treatment of hypoglycemia. Focuses on controlling hypoglycemia in people with diabetes but also discusses hypoglycemia in people without diabetes.

I

I Can Lower MY Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Guide for American Indians

Targeted to American Indians and defines diabetes and reviews the signs and symptoms. Discusses the risk factors type 2 diabetes and ways it can be prevented. Am I at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes? Taking Steps to Lower Your Risk of Getting Diabetes

IGA Nephropathy

Defines IgA nephropathy, an autoimmune disease that affects the kidneys. Discusses causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.


Incontinence in Men


See
 Urinary Incontinence in Men


Insulin (See What I need to know about Diabetes Medicines)


See
 What I need to know about Diabetes Medicines

Insulin Infusion Systems


See
 Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin


Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes

Defines insulin resistance and prediabetes and describes diagnosis. Lists ways to treat these conditions to help avoid developing diabetes.

Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus


See
 Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2


Islet Transplantation


See
 Pancreatic Islet Transplantation




J

Januvia (DPP-4-Inhibitor)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.


K


Kidney Disease of Diabetes

Explains kidney disease, including causes and its progression to kidney failure. Highlights the findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial as they relate to kidney disease.




L





Low Blood Glucose


See
 Hypoglycemia

Low Vision

Links to Facts About Diabetic Retinopathy from the National Eye Institute

M




Meal Planning and Diabetes


See
 What I need to know about Eating and Diabetes


Medical Therapies for Diabetes

Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies for Diabetes - National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse




Metabolic Syndrome


See
 Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes



Monitor Your Diabetes

Describes the tests someone with diabetes can take to help improve their blood glucose targets to help prevent diabetes problems.

Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-onset Diabetes of the Young

Describes rare forms of diabetes that result from mutations in a single gene. Discusses genetic testing and counseling. Provides information in tabular form for health care providers.


My Diabetes Medicines

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

N









O


Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)


See
 Comparing Tests for Diabetes and Prediabetes

Organizations, Directory of Diabetes

The directory lists Government agencies and voluntary associations that provide diabetes information and resources available from the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse.


P

Pancreatic Islet Transplantation

Defines pancreatic islets and describes the process of pancreatic islet transplantation, an experimental procedure. Also discusses the risks and benefits of transplantation.






Prandin (Meglitinide)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.



Prevent Diabetes Problems

Describes steps to prevent diabetes problems with the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.


Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your diabetes under control

Helps patients learn about blood glucose management. Includes a comprehensive chart to record blood glucose levels and medicines and valuable checklists for health care visits.

Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your eyes healthy

Defines and illustrates the different parts of the eye and the various forms of eye damage that can result from diabetes. Explains how eye damage from diabetes can be prevented or delayed.

Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your feet healthy

Discusses how diabetes can lead to foot and skin problems. Illustrates the different foot problems that can occur. Provides tips about how people can prevent or delay foot and skin problems. This publication is also available in Spanish.

Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your heart and blood vessels healthy

Describes the role of the heart and blood vessels. Details the damage diabetes can cause to the heart and blood vessels and explains how to prevent and treat these complications. This publication is also available in Spanish.

Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy

Explains kidney damage as a complication of diabetes and how kidney disease can be prevented, diagnosed, and treated.

Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your mouth healthy

Explains the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, complications, and treatment of diabetes-related problems in the mouth in an easy-to-read format. This publication is also available in Spanish.

Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your nervous system healthy

Describes the various parts of the nervous system and explains how uncontrolled diabetes can damage these individual components. Also explains how to prevent and treat these problems.


R






S


Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG)


See
 Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers

Sexual and Urologic Problems of Diabetes

Describes the sexual and urologic problems that men and women with diabetes may experience. Provides information about causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.


Sickle Cell Trait and Other Hemoglobinopathies and Diabetes: Important Information for Providers

Explains how the A1C test can lead to misdiagnosis, overtreatment, or undertreatment of diabetes in people with hemoglobinopathies. Explains when to suspect a patient has a variant.




Spanish, Diabetes Publications

Página de lista de recursos de la A a la Z proveída del Centro Coordinador Nacional de Información sobre la Diabetes.


Starlix (D-Phenylalanine Derivative)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

Statistics, Diabetes

Statistics page of National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse.

Stomach Nerve Damage


See
 Gastroparesis



Symlin (Amylin Mimetic)

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.


T

Take Care of Your Diabetes during Special Times or Events

Describes how someone with diabetes can be prepared during travel, work or school, pregnancy, natural disasters, and illness.

Take Care of Your Diabetes Each Day

Describes how to follow your healthy eating plan, be physically active, take medicines as prescribed, and monitor diabetes.







The A1C Test and Diabetes

Defines and explains the A1C diabetes blood test. Discusses using the test for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes and monitoring of glucose levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.













Transplantation of Pancreatic Islet Cells


See
 Pancreatic Islet Transplantation



Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Defines diabetes and discusses the causes of type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Describes genetic, environmental, and other factors associated with the development of diabetes. Causes of Diabetes


Type 2 Diabetes Causes

Defines diabetes and discusses the causes of type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Describes genetic, environmental, and other factors associated with the development of diabetes. Causes of Diabetes

Types of Insulin

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

U

Urinary Incontinence in Children

Discusses the causes of nighttime and daytime incontinence in children, describes medical and behavioral treatments, and lists resources for additional information.

Urinary Incontinence in Men

Explains how nerve problems, prostate enlargement, and treatments for prostate cancer can all cause urinary incontinence in men. Discusses causes, diagnosis, and available treatments.

Urinary Incontinence in Women

Discusses the anatomy of the female urinary system, defines the major types of incontinence in women, describes treatments, and lists resources for additional information.

V

Vesicoureteral Reflux

Explains how urine may reflux, or flow backward, from the bladder to the kidneys. Describes tests and treatment for this condition.


W


What I need to know about Bladder Control for Women

Provides a comprehensive introduction to the causes, symptoms, and treatments for bladder control problems in women.

What I need to know about Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

Explains carbohydrate counting, a meal planning tool for people with diabetes to help control blood glucose levels.

What I need to know about Diabetes Medicines

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

What I Need to Know about Diabetes Medicines- Combination Diabetes

Describes the types of diabetes medicines and their effects on blood glucose. Provides questions to ask providers, a personal medication record, and a guide for treating low blood glucose.

What I need to know about Eating and Diabetes

Provides an easy-to-read guide about the basics of meal planning for people with diabetes. Reviews nutrition basics, including what, when, and how much a person with diabetes should eat.

What I need to know about Erectile Dysfunction

Describes the physiology of erection and the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of erectile dysfunction.

What I need to know about Gestational Diabetes

Defines gestational diabetes, explains the causes and diagnosis, and outlines treatment. Includes strategies for preventing or delaying type 2 diabetes later in life. This publication is also available in Spanish.

What I need to know about My Child's Bedwetting

An easy-to-read booklet for parents. Explains why some children take longer to learn how to stay dry at night. Describes options for helping a child develop nighttime bladder control.

What I need to know about Physical Activity and Diabetes

Describes the benefits of physical activity and precautions for people with diabetes. Explains the types of activity and how to begin a program. Provides referrals to other resources. This publication is also available in Spanish.

What I need to know about Preparing for Pregnancy if I Have Diabetes

Explains in an easy-to-read format why and how women with diabetes should take care of themselves before, during, and after pregnancy. This publication is also available in Spanish.

Y



Your Diabetes Care Records

Provides charts for recording important information to discuss at each doctor’s visit.

Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2

Provides comprehensive information in a generously illustrated format for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Provides action steps for people who take insulin and for those who do not. This publication is also available in Spanish.