U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Kidney Disease A-Z

Kidney disease topics are listed in alphabetical order. Select a letter to locate a disease or condition, diagnostic test, or anatomy topic.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) conducts, supports, and coordinates research on many of the most serious diseases affecting public health. The NIDDK cannot provide medical advice for individuals. The information provided here is informed by NIDDK research, reviewed by doctors, and provided to help you understand more about the diseases and conditions you or your loved ones may face. The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health, the medical research agency of the United States.​
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A


Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

Explains the causes of acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), a common condition in people with kidney failure who are treated with dialysis.



Albuminuria


See
 Proteinuria


Alport Syndrome


See
 Glomerular Diseases

Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

Describes primary amyloidosis and dialysis-related amyloidosis, diseases that affect the kidneys.

Analgesic Nephropathy (Painkillers and the Kidneys)

Discusses acute renal failure caused by analgesic use in people with risk factors such as advanced age or heavy alcohol use. Explains how daily use of analgesics over long periods may lead to chronic kidney disease

Anatomy of the Kidneys


See
 The Kidneys and How They Work


Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

Explains the kidneys’ role in making red blood cells and how kidney disease can lead to anemia. Discusses the diagnosis and treatment of anemia in kidney disease.

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)


See
 High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors


See
 High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

Are there medications for kidney disease? (1:32)

"A doctor provides an overview of kidney disease medications and their relation to other conditions, such as high blood pressure."

Arteriovenous (AV) Fistula


See
 Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

Arteriovenous (AV) Graft


See
 Vascular Access for Hemodialysis



B


Blood in the Urine


See
 Hematuria: Blood in the Urine




Bone Disease of Kidney Failure


See
 Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder


C


Can kidney disease get better? (0:49)

"A doctor explains that kidney damage caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually permanent, and how kidney treatment works to prevent further damage."


Childhood Kidney Stones


See
 Kidney Stones in Children

Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome

Describes the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of nephrotic syndrome in children for parents and caregivers.









Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder

Explains how working kidneys contribute to healthy bones and why kidney disease can lead to bone problems. Covers diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease.


Complications of Kidney Failure


See
 What I need to know about Living with Kidney Failure

Creatinine (for health care professionals)


See
 Quick Reference on UACR and GFR

Cynthia Shares Her Experience with Kidney Disease (1:24)

Patient Cynthia Allen talks about finding out she had kidney disease without having any symptoms.

D


Diabetes and Kidney Disease


See
 Kidney Disease of Diabetes

Diabetes Educator Reviews NKDEP Brochures (0:27)

A diabetes educator reviews NKDEP brochures at the 2011 American Association of Diabetes Educators Conference.

Diabetes Inspidus

Explains how working kidneys contribute to healthy bones and why kidney disease can lead to bone problems. Covers diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease.




Dietitian on Using NKDEP Materials (0:36)

A dietitian discusses using NKDEP materials to teach friends and family about kidney disease at the 2010 Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo.

Dietitian Reviews NKDEP Diet Fact sheets (:13)

A dietitian reviews NKDEP’s fact sheets for patients not on dialysis at the 2010 Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo.

Discuss Kidney Health with Your Family and Faith Community (3:50)

This video will teach you why it is important to talk about kidney health with your family and faith community.


E

Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis


See
 Kidney Failure: Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis


Ectopic Kidney

Explains the causes and complications of ectopic kidney, a birth defect in which a kidney is located in an abnormal position. Describes the diagnostic procedures and treatment options for the condition.

Educator on NKDEP Fact sheets (0:40)

"A diabetes educator discusses the sodium, potassium, and protein fact sheets at the 2010 American Association of Diabetes Educators conference."



Erectile Dysfunction

Describes the physiology of erection and the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of erectile dysfunction.




F

Facing the Challenges of Chronic Kidney Disease in Children

Describes the psychosocial impact chronic kidney disease can have on children and their families.

Faith Leader Talks About Kidney Disease (1:09)

Dr. Shelton Murphy gives back to his community by educating his faith organization about kidney disease.

Family Health Leader Uses NKDEP Guide at Her Reunion (2:45)

A family reunion planner talks about using NKDEP’s Family Reunion Health Guide to start conversations about kidney health.

Family Reunion Attendee on Using NKDEP Materials (0:14)

Tom Joyner Family Reunion attendee Gaye Castell discusses the NKDEP Family Reunion Health Guide.

family reunion guide

reunion guide​



Financial Help for Treatment of Kidney Failure

Briefly describes the Federal Government’s insurance program, which covers much of the cost of dialysis treatments and transplantation expenses.


Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis


See
 Glomerular Diseases




G

Glomerular Diseases

Defines the two major categories of glomerular diseases––glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis––and describes how they interfere with kidney function.


Glomerulonephritis


See
 Glomerular Diseases

Glomerulosclerosis


See
 Glomerular Diseases

Goodpasture Syndrome

Summarizes the symptoms and treatment for this autoimmune condition.

Growth Failure in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

Describes growth failure in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Discusses how CKD affects the child and the available treatment options for parents and caregivers.

H


Health Champion on Using NKDEP Materials (2:00)

Pamela Williams talks about using NKDEP’s Family Reunion Health Guide and Kidney Sundays Toolkit with her family and faith community.

Health Champion Shares How She Uses NKDEP Materials (1:06)

Dr. Bennie Marshall discusses using NKDEP materials to educate faith communities about kidney disease.


Hemodialysis: Dose and Adequacy

Explains the formulas used to determine whether a hemodialysis dose is adequate.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

Explains how the condition develops after Escherichia coli infection in the digestive tract and describes treatment.

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

Describes the signs and symptoms of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura, an autoimmune disease that affects mostly children between the ages of 2 and 6. Explains possible long-term consequences, including kidney disease.


High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

Reviews the basics of high blood pressure and the effect it has on the kidneys. Discusses the signs and symptoms of kidney disease and ways to prevent it.

Home Hemodialysis

​​Discusses the advantages of home hemodialysis over conventional hemodialysis performed in a clinic. Explains the training requirements and logistical details for performing hemodialysis at home. 


How can I reduce my risk for kidney disease? (0:41)

"A doctor offers advice on how to reduce your risk for kidney disease through a healthy diet and lifestyle, and yearly testing for kidney disease."

How do you check for kidney disease? (0:45)

"A doctor explains the two tests for chronic kidney disease (CKD): blood test, which checks your Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), and a urine test."

How to Host a Kidney Sundays Event (4:09)

Turner Memorial AME Church shows how to plan a successful Kidney Sundays event.


Hypertension and Kidney Disease


See
 High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

I

IGA Nephropathy

Defines IgA nephropathy, an autoimmune disease that affects the kidneys. Discusses causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.


Infection, Kidney


See
 Pylonephritis: Kidney Infection

Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

Describes the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). Defines the two types of IC, ulcerative and nonulcerative.


Is there a connection between heart disease and kidney disease? (0:30)

"A doctor explains the relationship between heart disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD), emphasizing the importance of blood pressure control to reduce the risk of both these diseases."


K


Kidney Biopsy

Describes kidney biopsy and possible reasons for performing this diagnostic test. Outlines the preparations for and explains what patients can expect during and after the test.

Kidney Cysts


See
 Simple Kidney Cysts



Kidney Disease of Diabetes

Explains kidney disease, including causes and its progression to kidney failure. Highlights the findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial as they relate to kidney disease.


Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

Provides statistics about kidney disease, including prevalence and survival rates.


Kidney Dysplasia

Explains the causes of kidney dysplasia, also called multicystic kidney disease, a condition that appears in a child during fetal development. Discusses genetic syndromes that may include kidney dysplasia. 


Kidney Failure: Choosing a Treatment That's Right for You

Provides a broad overview of the treatment options for a person facing kidney failure. Introduces hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation, with a general description of each method and a list of pros and cons.

Kidney Failure: Choosing a Treatment That's Right for You - Chart

Chart that summarizes three treatment options.

Kidney Failure: Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis

Explains in an easy-to-read format how food affects hemodialysis patients and describes the role of fluids, potassium, phosphorus, protein, sodium, calories, and vitamins and minerals.

Kidney Failure: What to Expect

Describes the complications of kidney failure and its treatment for patients who have just started dialysis.

Kidney Function


See
 The Kidneys and How They Work

Kidney Infection


See
 Pylonephritis: Kidney Infection

Kidney Stones in Adults

Discusses the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of kidney stones. Reviews prevention strategies and treatment options, as well as information on current research.

Kidney Stones in Children

Discusses the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of kidney stones in children. Describes treatments and steps for kidney-stone prevention.



L

Lupus Nephritis

Introduces systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune condition. Describes the symptoms of kidney problems caused by SLE.

M






Medical Tests for Kidney Function


See
 The Kidneys and How They Work


Medullary Sponge Kidney

Defines medullary sponge kidney, a birth defect of the tiny internal structures of the kidney. Describes treatment and prevention methods.

Membranous Nephropathy


See
 Glomerular Diseases

Mineral and Bone Disorder of Chronic Kidney Disease


See
 Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder


Minimal Change Disease


See
 Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome




Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney (MCDK)


See
 Kidney Dysplasia

N



Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults

Discusses the causes, symptoms, and treatment for nephrotic syndrome in adults.

Nephrotic Syndrome in Children


See
 Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome

NIDDK Director Welcomes Kidney Sundays Congregation (1:48)

Dr. Griffin Rodgers thanks congregations across the nation for hosting Kidney Sundays events.


NKDEP Materials Help Promote Early Detection of CKD (1:06)

A health advocate describes how NKDEP materials can educate primary care staff on early kidney disease detection.

NKDEP Tool to Explain Kidney Test Results (0:52)

A diabetes educator reviews “Explaining Your Kidney Test Results” at the 2010 American Association of Diabetes Educators conference.


Nutrition for Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

Explains how the right diet choices can protect kidney function in the late stages of kidney failure. Discusses ways to moderate protein intake.

Nutrition for Chronic Kidney Disease in Children

Explains how kidney disease can affect nutrition needs in children. Provides guidance about nutrient content of foods, including calories, protein, phosphorus, sodium, and potassium.

Nutrition for Early Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults

Discusses dietary guidelines for controlling elevated blood glucose and hypertension, the two leading causes of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

O

Overview of Kidney Disease in Children

Describes the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute and chronic kidney diseases and kidney failure in children.

P




Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy

Explains the importance of performing all exchanges. Describes the procedures used to measure how well the dialysis treatments are working.




Polycystic Kidney Disease

Defines two types of polycystic kidney disease and describes their genetic origins, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as ongoing research.



Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your kidneys healthy

Explains kidney damage as a complication of diabetes and how kidney disease can be prevented, diagnosed, and treated.

Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate

Defines prostatitis. Describes the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments for chronic prostatitis/pelvic pain syndrome and acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis.


Proteinuria

Defines proteinuria and discusses who is at risk. Reviews the signs of proteinuria and provides information about testing procedures and treatment options.

Pylonephritis: Kidney Infection

Lists the causes and symptoms of kidney infection. Explains the use of antibiotics to treat infection.

R



Renal Artery Stenosis

Explains the causes and complications of renal artery stenosis, a narrowing of one or both of the arteries that supply blood to the kidneys. Describes treatment options, including lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.

Renal Cysts


See
 Simple Kidney Cysts


Renal Dysplasia


See
 Kidney Dysplasia



Renal Tubular Acidosis

Explains the different types of renal tubular acidosis. Outlines diagnostic criteria and treatment options, as well as current research efforts.

Renovascular Hypertension (RVH)


See
 Renal Artery Stenosis

Reunion Planner Personalizes NKDEP Family Reunion Guid (1:11)

A family reunion planner uses NKDEP’s Family Reunion Health Guide to start kidney health conversations with his family.



S

Simple Kidney Cysts

Distinguishes between simple kidney cysts and polycystic kidney disease. Explains diagnostic procedures and treatment options.



Solitary Kidney

Explains normal kidney function and the possible causes of solitary kidney. Details the possible effects of solitary kidney and discusses ways to protect remaining kidney function.


Sponge Kidney


See
 Medullary Sponge Kidney

Statistics, Kidney Diseases

Statistical information on kidney diseases.


T




The Kidneys and How They Work

​Explains what kidneys do and why they are important to maintain life. Describes the internal anatomy of the kidney. This publication is also available in Spanish.




Treatment Methods for Kidney Disease: Peritoneal Dialysis

Describes the procedures and supplies required for peritoneal dialysis (PD). Explains the differences between ambulatory and automated PD. Gives instructions for avoiding possible problems.

Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children

Describes the treatment options for children with kidney failure, including transplantation, peritoneal dialysis, and hemodialysis.

Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis

Details the procedures and equipment involved in hemodialysis. Explains vascular access and dietary issues.

Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Kidney Transplantation

Gives a step-by-step account of the transplantation process from the initial medical evaluation and placement on a waiting list to surgery, recovery, and maintenance with antirejection medicines. 



U

UACR (for health care professionals)


See
 Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR)



Using NKDEP Materials in a Private Practice (0:17)

A dietitian discusses using NKDEP materials in her private practice to help prepare patients for dialysis at the 2010 Food and Nutrition Conference and expo

Using the Eating Right for Kidney Health Fact Sheet (0:16)

A dietitian reviews the NKDEP Eating Right for Kidney Health fact sheet at the 2010 Food and Nutrition Conference and Expo.

V

Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

Defines vascular access and reviews three access options. Describes what to expect during hemodialysis and lists ways to protect the access site.


Vincent Shares His Experience with Kidney Disease (1:41)

Patient Vincent Jordan shares his experience living with kidney disease and being on dialysis


W


What are the symptoms of kidney disease? Approach 1 (0:34)

"A doctor explains the importance of testing for kidney disease, which is also known as a ""silent disease"" because there are often no physical symptoms."

What are the symptoms of kidney disease? Approach 2 (0:23)

"A doctor explains that for many people there are no symptoms of kidney disease, which is why testing is important."

What changes do I need to make because I have kidney disease? (0:37)

"A doctor discusses the importance of diet and lifestyle changes for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), such as exercise, smoking cessation, and limiting salt intake."

What do the kidneys do? Approach 1 (0:52)

"A doctor explains what the kidneys look like, their function, and how they keep people healthy."

What do the kidneys do? Approach 2 (1:01)

"A doctor explains chronic kidney disease (CKD) to a patient, including its effect on the body, and when dialysis or a kidney transplant is needed."

What I need to know about Kidney Failure and How It’s Treated

Explains what happens when a person’s kidneys fail and describes the treatment methods available.

What I need to know about Kidney Stones

Uses plain language and illustrations to describe the symptoms and treatment of kidney stones. This publication is also available in Spanish (KU–163).

What I need to know about Living with Kidney Failure

Explains the treatment methods for kidney failure and presents strategies for coping with kidney failure.

What is chronic kidney disease? Approach 1 (0:53)

A doctor explains what chronic kidney disease (CKD) is and who is most at risk.

What is chronic kidney disease? Approach 2 (0:35)

"A doctor explains chronic kidney disease (CKD) to a patient, including its effect on the body, and when dialysis or a kidney transplant is needed"

What is dialysis? (1:17)

A doctor explains the purpose of dialysis and explains the difference between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

Why did you test me for kidney disease? (0:30)

The doctor explains the importance of testing for kidney disease even if a patient feels fine

Will I need dialysis? Approach 1 (0:39)

"A doctor explains that with early identification of kidney disease and treatment, patients may be able to avoid dialysis."

Will I need dialysis? Approach 2 (0:26)

A doctor explains how early detection and treatment may delay the need to go on dialysis.


Y


Yvette Shares Her Story of Diabetes Diagnosis (1:21)

"Patient Yvette Surls shares her experience being diagnosed with diabetes."