U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Kidney Failure: Choosing a Treatment That's Right for You

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Why should I learn about treatments for kidney failure?

If you have advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), you may soon need treatment to do the work your kidneys can no longer do. Learning about your treatment options for kidney failure will help you make the best choice for you. Each treatment has pros and cons. Your choice of treatment will have a big effect on your daily life, such as continuing to work if you do so currently. Talking with your doctor ahead of time about your options can help you take control of your care. Understanding the treatment you choose and getting used to the idea that you need to have this treatment takes time. If you find your choice of treatment does not fit your lifestyle, talk with your doctor about picking another treatment that fits your needs better.

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What are my kidneys and what do they do?

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine.  Every day, the two kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters, one on each side of the bladder. The bladder stores urine. The muscles of the bladder wall remain relaxed while the bladder fills with urine. As the bladder fills to capacity, signals sent to the brain tell a person to find a toilet soon. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. In men the urethra is long, while in women it is short.

Frontal silhouette of person with kidneys, bladder and urethra.
Every day, the two kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid.

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What is chronic kidney disease?

Chronic kidney disease means you have damaged kidneys that cannot filter blood normally. Wastes then build up in your blood, harming your body. Kidney disease usually does not get better and may lead to kidney failure. If your kidneys fail, current treatment options can help you live a longer, healthier life. Some people live with kidney disease for years without needing treatment. Others progress quickly to kidney failure.

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What happens when my kidneys fail

When your kidneys fail, harmful wastes and extra fluid buildup in your body, which can cause

  • darkened skin
  • dry skin
  • edema—swelling, usually in the legs, feet, or ankles and less often in the hands or face
  • generalized itching or numbness
  • headaches
  • high blood pressure
  • little or no urination
  • loss of appetite
  • muscle cramps
  • nausea
  • sleep problems
  • drowsiness
  • fatigue, or feeling tired
  • trouble concentrating
  • vomiting
  • weight loss

When these conditions occur, you need treatment to replace the work your damaged kidneys have stopped doing. Left untreated, kidney failure will lead to coma, seizures, and death.

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What are my treatment options?

You have three treatment options to choose from to filter your blood. A fourth option offers care without replacing the work of the kidneys. None of these treatments helps the kidneys get better. However, they all can help you feel better.

  • Hemodialysis uses a machine to move your blood through a filter outside your body, removing wastes.
  • Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of your belly to filter your blood inside your body, removing wastes.
  • Kidney transplantation is surgery to place a healthy kidney from a person who has just died or a living person, usually a family member, into your body to take over the job of filtering your blood.
  • Conservative management is the choice not to treat kidney failure with dialysis or a transplant. Instead, the focus is on using medicines to keep you comfortable, preserving kidney function through diet, and treating the problems of kidney failure, such as anemia—a shortage of red blood cells that can make you tired—and weak bones.

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What should I know about hemodialysis?

Purpose of Hemodialysis

The purpose of hemodialysis is to filter your blood. This type of dialysis uses a machine to remove harmful wastes and extra fluid, as your kidneys did when they were healthy. Hemodialysis helps control blood pressure and balance important minerals, such as potassium, sodium, calcium, and bicarbonate, in your blood. Hemodialysis is not a cure for kidney failure; however, it can help you feel better and live longer.

How Hemodialysis Works

Before you can begin dialysis, a surgeon will create a vascular access, usually in your arm. A vascular access lets high volumes of blood flow continuously during hemodialysis treatments to filter the largest possible amounts of blood per treatment.

Hemodialysis uses a machine to move your blood through a filter, called a dialyzer, outside your body. A pump on the hemodialysis machine draws your blood through a needle into a tube, a few ounces at a time. Your blood then travels through the tube, which takes it to the dialyzer. Inside the dialyzer, your blood flows through thin fibers that filter out wastes and extra fluid. After the dialyzer filters your blood, another tube carries your blood back to your body. You can do hemodialysis at a dialysis center or in your home.

Man sitting in a chair hooked up to Dialysis machine
Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis can replace part of your kidney function. You will also need dietary changes, medicines, and limits on water and other liquids you drink and get from food. Your dietary changes, the number of medicines you need, and limits on liquid will depend on where you receive your treatments—at a dialysis center or at home—and how often you receive treatments—three or more times a week.

Pros and Cons of Hemodialysis

The pros and cons of hemodialysis differ for each person. What may be bad for one person may be good for another. Following is a list of the general pros and cons of dialysis center and home hemodialysis.

Dialysis Center Hemodialysis

Pros

  • Dialysis centers are widely available.
  • Trained health care providers are with you at all times and help administer the treatment.
  • You can get to know other people with kidney failure who also need hemodialysis.
  • You don’t have to have a trained partner or keep equipment in your home.

Cons

  • The center arranges everyone’s treatments and allows few exceptions to the schedule.
  • You need to travel to the center for treatment.
  • This treatment has the strictest diet and limits on liquids because the longer time between treatments means wastes and extra fluid can build up in your body.
  • You may have more frequent ups and downs in how you feel from day to day because of the longer time between sessions.
  • Feeling better after a treatment may take a few hours.

Home Hemodialysis

Pros

  • You can do the treatment at the times you choose; however, you should follow your doctor’s orders about how many times a week you need treatment.
  • You don’t have to travel to a dialysis center.
  • You gain a sense of control over your treatment.
  • You will have fewer ups and downs in how you feel from day to day because of more frequent sessions.
  • You can do your treatments at times that will let you work outside the home.
  • You will have a more manageable diet and fewer limits on liquids because the shorter time between sessions prevents the buildup of wastes and extra fluid.
  • You can take along a hemodialysis machine when traveling.
  • You can spend more time with your loved ones because you don’t have to go to the dialysis center three times a week.

Cons

  • Not all dialysis centers offer home hemodialysis training and support.
  • You and a family member or friend will have to set aside a week or more at the beginning for training.
  • Helping with treatments may be stressful for your family or friend.
  • You need space for storing the hemodialysis machine and supplies at home.
  • You will need to learn to put dialysis needles into your vascular access.
  • Medicare and private insurance companies may limit the number of treatments they will pay for when you use home hemodialysis. Few people can afford the costs for additional treatments.

Questions to Ask My Doctor

You may want to ask your doctor these questions:

  • Is hemodialysis the best treatment choice for me? Why?
  • If I’m treated at a dialysis center, can I go to the center of my choice?
  • What should I look for in a dialysis center?
  • Will my kidney doctor see me at the dialysis center?
  • What does hemodialysis feel like?
  • How will hemodialysis affect my ____ [blood pressure, diabetes, other conditions]?
  • Is home hemodialysis available in my area? What type of training will I need?  Who will train my partner and me?
  • Will I be able to keep working? Can I have treatments at night? Will I be able to care for my children?
  • How much should I exercise?
  • Whom do I contact if I have problems?
  • Who will be on my health care team? How can the members of my health care team help me?
  • If I do home hemodialysis, will my insurance pay for more than three sessions a week?
  • With whom can I talk about finances, sex, or family concerns?
  • How/where can I talk with other people who have faced this decision?

More information about Hemodialysis and Home Hemodialysis is provided in the NIDDK health topics, Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis and Home Hemodialysis. See also the “Kidney Failure Treatment Comparison Chart” in this booklet, which compares hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation.

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What should I know about peritoneal dialysis?

Purpose of Peritoneal Dialysis

The purpose of peritoneal dialysis is to filter wastes and extra fluid from your body. This type of dialysis uses the lining of your belly—the space in your body that holds your stomach, bowels, and liver—to filter your blood. This lining, called the peritoneum, acts to do the work of your kidneys.

How Peritoneal Dialysis Works

A doctor will place a soft tube, called a catheter, in your belly a few weeks before you start treatment. The catheter stays in your belly permanently. When you start peritoneal dialysis, you will empty a kind of salty water, called dialysis solution, from a plastic bag through the catheter into your belly. When the bag is empty, you can disconnect your catheter from the bag so you can move around and do your normal activities. While the dialysis solution is inside your belly, it soaks up wastes and extra fluid from your body. After a few hours, you drain the used dialysis solution through another tube into a drain bag. You can throw away the used dialysis solution, now filled with wastes and extra fluid, in a toilet or tub. Then you start over with a fresh bag of dialysis solution. The process of emptying the used dialysis solution and refilling your belly with fresh solution is called an exchange. The process goes on continuously, so you always have dialysis solution in your belly soaking up wastes and extra fluid from your body.

Side silhouette of person with bag of solution, image of belly and connecting tubes; also next to it a picture of someone connecting tubes to the solution bag on their lap.
Peritoneal dialysis

Types of Peritoneal Dialysis

Two types of peritoneal dialysis are available. After you have learned about the types of peritoneal dialysis, you can choose the type that best fits your life. If one schedule or type of peritoneal dialysis does not suit you, talk with your doctor about trying the other type.

  • Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis does not require a machine and you can do it in any clean, well-lit place. The time period that the dialysis solution is in your belly is the dwell time. With continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the dialysis solution stays in your belly for a dwell time of 4 to 6 hours, or more. The process of draining the used dialysis solution and replacing it with fresh solution takes about 30 to 40 minutes. Most people change the dialysis solution at least four times a day and sleep with solution in their belly at night. With continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, you do not have to wake up and perform dialysis tasks during the night.
  • Continuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis uses a machine called a cycler to fill and empty your belly three to five times during the night while you sleep. In the morning, you begin one exchange with a dwell time that lasts the entire day. You may do an additional exchange in the middle of the afternoon without the cycler to increase the amount of waste removed and to reduce the amount of fluid left behind in your body.

You may need a combination of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and continuous cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis if you weigh more than 175 pounds or if your peritoneum filters wastes slowly. For example, some people use a cycler at night and perform one exchange during the day. Others do four exchanges during the day and use a minicycler to perform one or more exchanges during the night. You’ll work with your health care team to find the best schedule for you.

Pros and Cons of Peritoneal Dialysis

Each type of peritoneal dialysis has pros and cons.

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

Pros

  • You can do continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis alone.
  • You can do continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at the times you choose, as long as you perform the required number of exchanges each day.
  • You can do continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in many locations.
  • You can travel as long as you bring dialysis bags with you or have them delivered to your destination.
  • You don’t need a machine for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
  • You gain a sense of control over your treatment.

Cons

  • Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis can disrupt your daily schedule.
  • Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is a continuous treatment, and you should do all exchanges 7 days a week.
  • Boxes of dialysis solution will take up space in your home.

Continuous Cycler-assisted Peritoneal Dialysis

Pros

  • You can do exchanges at night, while you sleep.
  • You may not have to perform exchanges during the day.

Cons

  • You need a machine.
  • Your connection to the cycler limits your movement at night.

Questions to Ask My Doctor

  • Is peritoneal dialysis the best treatment choice for me? Why? If yes, which type is best?
  • What type of training do I need, and how long will it take?
  • What does peritoneal dialysis feel like?
  • How will peritoneal dialysis affect my ____ [blood pressure, diabetes, other conditions]?
  • Will I be able to keep working? Will I be able to care for my children?
  • How much should I exercise?
  • Where do I store supplies?
  • How often do I see my doctor?
  • Who will be on my health care team? How can the members of my health care team help me?
  • Whom do I contact if I have problems?
  • With whom can I talk about finances, sex, or family concerns?
  • How/where can I talk with other people who have faced this decision?

More information about Peritoneal Dialysis is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis. See also the “Kidney Failure Treatment Comparison Chart,” which compares peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and transplantation.

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Is dialysis a cure for kidney failure?

No. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis help you feel better and live longer; however, they do not cure kidney failure. Although people with kidney failure are now living longer than ever, over the years kidney disease can cause other problems, such as heart disease, bone disease, arthritis, nerve damage, infertility, and malnutrition. These problems won’t go away with dialysis; however, doctors now have new and better ways to prevent or treat them. You should discuss these problems and their treatments with your doctor.

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What should I know about kidney transplantation?

What should I know about kidney transplantation?

The purpose of kidney transplantation is to surgically place a healthy kidney from a donor—a person who has just died or a living person, most often a family member—into your body. A kidney from someone who has just died is a deceased donor kidney. A kidney from a living person is a living donor kidney. A functioning kidney transplant does a better job of filtering wastes and keeping you healthy than dialysis.

How Kidney Transplantation Works

Surgeons—doctors who specialize in surgery—place most transplanted kidneys in the lower front part of your abdomen. The kidney is connected to an artery, which brings unfiltered blood into the kidney, and a vein, which takes filtered blood out of the kidney. The surgeon also transplants the ureter from the donor to let urine from the new kidney flow to your bladder. Unless your damaged kidneys cause problems such as infection, they can remain in their normal position. The transplanted kidney takes over the job of filtering your blood. Your body normally attacks anything it sees as foreign, so to keep your body from attacking the kidney you need to take medicines called immunosuppressants for as long as the transplanted kidney functions.

Frontal silhouette of a female torso with damaged kidneys and a transplanted kidney.
Transplanted kidney

Pros and Cons of Kidney Transplantation

Following is a list of the pros and cons of kidney transplantation.

Kidney Transplantation

Pros

  • A transplanted kidney works like a healthy kidney.
  • If you have a living donor, you can choose the time of your operation.
  • You may feel healthier and have an improved quality of life.
  • You have fewer dietary restrictions.
  • You won’t need dialysis.
  • People who receive a donated kidney have a greater chance of living a longer life than those who stay on dialysis.

Cons

  • Transplantation requires surgery.
  • You will go through extensive medical testing at the transplant clinic.
  • You may need to wait years for a deceased donor kidney.
  • Your body may reject the new kidney, so one transplant may not last a lifetime.
  • You’ll need to take immunosuppressants, which may cause other health problems, for as long as the transplanted kidney functions.

Questions to Ask My Doctor

You may want to ask your doctor these questions:

  • Is transplantation the best treatment choice for me? Why?
  • What are my chances of having a successful transplant?
  • How do I find out whether a family member or friend can donate?
  • What are the risks to a family member or friend who donates?
  • If a family member or friend does not donate, who will place me on a waiting list for a kidney? How long will I have to wait?
  • How will I know if my donor kidney is working?
  • How long does a transplanted kidney function?
  • What side effects do immunosuppressants cause?
  • Who will be on my transplant team? How can the members of my transplant team help me?
  • With whom can I talk about finances, sex, or family concerns?
  • How/where can I talk with other people who have faced this decision?

More information about Transplantation is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Transplantation. See also the “Kidney Failure Treatment Comparison Chart,” which compares peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and transplantation.

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What should I know about conservative management?

Conservative management for kidney failure is the choice to say no to or stop dialysis treatments. For many people, dialysis not only extends life, it also improves the quality of life. For others who have serious conditions in addition to kidney failure, dialysis may seem like a burden that only prolongs suffering. If you have serious conditions in addition to kidney failure, dialysis may not prolong your life or improve the quality of your life.

You have the right to say no to or stop dialysis. You may want to speak with your doctor, spouse, family, counselor, or renal social worker, who helps people with kidney disease, to help you make this decision.

If you stop dialysis treatments or say you do not want to begin them, you may live for a few weeks or for several months, depending on your health and your remaining kidney function. You may choose to receive care from a hospice—a facility or home program designed to meet the physical and emotional needs of the terminally ill—during this time. Hospice care focuses on relief of pain and other symptoms. Whether or not you choose to use a hospice, your doctor can give you medicines to make you more comfortable. Your doctor can also give you medicines to treat the problems of kidney failure, such as anemia or weak bones. You may restart dialysis treatment if you change your mind.

Advance Directives

An advance directive is a statement or document in which you give instructions either to withhold certain treatments, such as dialysis, or to provide them, depending on your wishes and the specific circumstances. Even if you are happy with your quality of life on dialysis, you should think about circumstances that might make you want to stop dialysis treatments. At some point in a medical crisis, you might lose the ability to tell your health care team and loved ones what you want. Advance directives may include

  • a living will
  • a durable power of attorney for health care decisions
  • a do not resuscitate (DNR) order—a legal form that tells your health care team you do not want cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or other life-sustaining treatment if your heart were to stop or if you were to stop breathing.

A living will is a document that details the conditions under which you would want to refuse treatment. You may state that you want your health care team to use all available means to sustain your life, or you may direct that you be withdrawn from dialysis if you fall into a coma from which you most likely won’t wake up. In addition to dialysis, you may choose or refuse the following life-sustaining treatments:

  • CPR
  • feedings through a tube in your stomach
  • mechanical or artificial means to help you breathe
  • medicines to treat infections
  • surgery
  • receiving blood

Refusing to have CPR is the same as a DNR order. If you choose to have a DNR order, your doctor will place the order in your medical chart.

A durable power of attorney for health care decisions or a health care proxy is a document you use to assign a person to make health care decisions for you in the event you cannot make them for yourself. Make sure the person you name understands your values and will follow your instructions.

Each state has its own laws on advance directives. You can obtain a form for an advance medical directive that’s valid in your state from the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization—see “For More Information.”

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What financial help is available to pay for dialysis or kidney transplantation?

Public insurance programs in the United States, such as Medicare and Medicaid, pay much of the cost of treatment for kidney failure. U.S. citizens who have kidney failure are eligible for Medicare. Treatment for kidney failure is expensive; however, Medicare pays much of the cost, usually up to 80 percent. Often, private insurance pays the rest. For people not eligible for Medicare or who still need help with the portion that Medicare does not cover, states have their own public insurance or Medicaid programs that provide funds for health care based on financial need. Your social worker can help you locate resources for financial help.

More information about paying for treatments is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Financial Help for Treatment of Kidney Failure.

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Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

All of the treatment options for kidney failure require changes and restrictions in your diet.

Hemodialysis

Hemodialysis has the most restrictions. You should watch how much water and other liquids you get from food and drinks and avoid getting too much sodium, often from salt; potassium; and phosphorus. You may find it difficult to limit phosphorus because many foods that are high in phosphorus also provide the protein you need. Hemodialysis can remove protein from the body, so you should eat foods with high-quality protein, such as meat, fish, and eggs. Limit your phosphorus by avoiding foods such as beans, peas, nuts, tea, and colas. You may also need to take a pill called a phosphate binder that keeps phosphorus in your food from entering your bloodstream. Talk with your dialysis center’s dietitian to find a hemodialysis meal plan that works for you.

More information about nutrition for people who are on hemodialysis is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Eat Right to Feel Right on Hemodialysis.

Peritoneal Dialysis

Like hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis requires limits on sodium and phosphorus. You may need to take a phosphate binder. The liquid limitations in peritoneal dialysis may not be as strict as those for hemodialysis. In fact, you may need to drink more water and other liquids if your peritoneal dialysis treatments remove too much fluid from your body. Peritoneal dialysis removes potassium from the body, so you may need to eat potassium-rich foods such as potatoes, tomatoes, oranges, and bananas. However, be careful not to eat too much potassium because it can cause an unsteady heartbeat. Peritoneal dialysis removes even more protein than hemodialysis, so eating foods with high-quality protein is important. You may need to limit calories because your body absorbs sugar from the dialysis solution.

Kidney Transplantation

Kidney transplantation has the fewest restrictions on your diet. You should limit sodium because it can raise your blood pressure. Medicines that you take after the transplant can cause you to gain weight, so you may need to limit calories.

Conservative Management

The diet for conservative management limits protein. Protein breaks down into waste products the kidneys must remove. Limiting protein may reduce the amount of work the kidneys have to do so they will last longer.

Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis Kidney Transplantation
In Center
Home
CAPD
CCPD
Deceased
Living
Schedule
Three treatments a week for 3 to 5 hours or more.
More flexibility in determining your schedule of treatments.
Four to six exchanges a day, every day.
Three to five exchanges a night, every night, with an additional exchange begun first thing in the morning.
You may wait several years before a suitable kidney is available.
If a friend or family member is donating, you can schedule the operation when you're both ready.
After the operation, you'll have regular checkups with your doctor.
Location
Dialysis center.
Home.
Any clean environment that allows solution exchanges.
The transplant operation takes place in a hospital.
Availability
Available in most communities; may require travel in some rural areas.
Generally available, but not widely used because of equipment requirements.
Widely available.
Widely available.
Transplant centers are located throughout the country. However, the demand for kidneys is far greater than the supply.
Equipment
and Supplies
No equipment or supplies in the home.
Hemodialysis machine connected to plumbing; chair.
Bags of dialysis solution take up storage space.
Cycling machine; bags of dialysis solution.
No equipment or supplies needed.
Training Required
Little training required; clinic staff perform most tasks.
You and a helper must attend several training sessions.
You'll need to attend several training sessions.
You'll need to learn about your medications and when to take them.
Diet
Must limit fluids, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus.
Must limit sodium and calories.
Fewer dietary restrictions.
Level of Freedom
Little freedom during treatments. Greater freedom on non-treatment days.
More freedom to set your own schedule. You're still linked to a machine for several hours a week.
You can move around, exercise, work, drive, etc., with solution in your abdomen.
You're linked to a machine during the night. You're free from exchanges during the day.
Offers the greatest amount of freedom.
Level of Responsibility
Some patients prefer to let clinic staff perform all tasks.
You and your helper are responsible for cleaning and setting up equipment and monitoring vital signs. Can be stressful on family helpers.
You must perform exchanges four to six times a day, every day.
You must set up your cycler every night.
You must take immunosuppressants every day for as long as the transplanted kidney functions.

More information about the treatments for kidney failure is provided in the NIDDK health communication program, National Kidney Disease Education Program.

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Points to Remember

  • You have three treatment options to choose from to filter your blood. A fourth option offers care without replacing the work of the kidneys.
    • Hemodialysis
    • Peritoneal dialysis
    • Kidney transplantation
    • Conservative management
  • None of these treatments helps the kidneys get better. However, they all can help you feel better.
  • Hemodialysis uses a machine to move your blood through a filter outside your body, removing wastes.
  • Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of your belly to filter your blood inside your body, removing wastes.
  • Kidney transplantation is surgery to place a healthy kidney from a person who has just died or a living person, usually a family member, into your body to take over the job of filtering your blood.
  • Conservative management is the choice not to treat kidney failure with dialysis or a transplant.
  • All of the treatment options for kidney failure require changes and restrictions in your diet.

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Clinical Trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.

What clinical trials are open?
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

This information may contain content about medications and, when taken as prescribed, the conditions they treat. When prepared, this content included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) or visit www.fda.gov. Consult your health care provider for more information.


The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.

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About the Kidney Failure Series

You and your doctor will work together to choose a treatment that's best for you. The publications of the NIDDK Kidney Failure Series can help you learn about the specific issues you will face.

Booklets

Fact Sheets

Learning as much as you can about your treatment will help make you an important member of your health care team.

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This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank:
Neil R. Powe, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A., and Delphine Tuot, M.D.C.M., M.A.S., University of California, San Francisco

This information is not copyrighted. The NIDDK encourages people to share this content freely.


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September 2015

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