U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Urologic Diseases A-Z

Urologic disease topics are listed in alphabetical order. Select a letter to locate a disease or condition, diagnostic test, or anatomy topic.

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) conducts, supports, and coordinates research on many of the most serious diseases affecting public health. The NIDDK cannot provide medical advice for individuals. The information provided here is informed by NIDDK research, reviewed by doctors, and provided to help you understand more about the diseases and conditions you or your loved ones may face. The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health, the medical research agency of the United States.​

mother and daughter
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A

Anatomy of the Urinary System


See
 The Urinary Tract and How It Works

B


Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)


See
 Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia


Blood in the Urine


See
 Hematuria: Blood in the Urine

C

Childhood Kidney Stones


See
 Kidney Stones in Children



Cystocele

Defines cystocele, explains the causes, and describes symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments.

Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy

Outlines possible reasons for cystoscopy and ureteroscopy and explains the preparation involved. Describes the procedures in detail, as well as what patients can expect afterward.

D

Daily Bladder Diary

An easy-to-use form for patients to note liquid intake, trips to the bathroom, urine leaks, and other details that may help explain your incontinence.

Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

Explains how diet and other factors affect the formation of different types of kidney stones. Provides general dietary guidelines for preventing the different types of kidney stones.


E



G

Glomerular Diseases

Defines the two major categories of glomerular diseases––glomerulosclerosis and glomerulonephritis––and describes how they interfere with kidney function.

Goodpasture Syndrome

Summarizes the symptoms and treatment for this autoimmune condition.

H

Hematuria: Blood in the Urine

Discusses the conditions that may lead to blood in the urine. Lists diagnostic tests that may be required to find the cause of hematuria.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

Explains how the condition develops after Escherichia coli infection in the digestive tract and describes treatment.

Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

Describes the signs and symptoms of Henoch-Schönlein Purpura, an autoimmune disease that affects mostly children between the ages of 2 and 6. Explains possible long-term consequences, including kidney disease.


I


Imaging of the Urinary Tract

Explains the range of imaging technologies used to evaluate the urinary tract, including ultrasound, conventional radiology, magnetic resonance imaging, and computerized tomography.

Imaging Studies, Urologic Diseases


See
 Imaging of the Urinary Tract



Incontinence in Men


See
 Urinary Incontinence in Men


Infection, Bladder


See
 Urinary Tract Infection In Adults

Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/PBS)


See
 What I need to know about Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

K

Kegel Exercise Tips

Provides a comprehensive introduction to the causes, symptoms, and treatments for bladder control problems in women.

Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

Provides statistics about kidney disease, including prevalence and survival rates.

Kidney Stones in Adults

Discusses the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of kidney stones. Reviews prevention strategies and treatment options, as well as information on current research.

Kidney Stones in Children

Discusses the causes, symptoms, and diagnosis of kidney stones in children. Describes treatments and steps for kidney-stone prevention.

M

Medical Tests for Prostate Problems

Reviews different prostate problems and lists key points to discuss with a doctor or nurse. Explains commonly performed tests, including a digital rectal exam and a prostate-specific antigen blood test.


N

Nerve Disease and Bladder Control

Explains overactive bladder, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, and urine retention, and discusses the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of neurogenic bladder. Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2




O


P


Perineal Injury in Males

Describes the anatomy of the male perineum and discusses ways in which the perineum may be injured. Explains treatments for perineal injuries.

Peyronie's Disease

Describes Peyronie’s disease, in which scarring of the penis leads to its bending during erection. Explains causes, symptoms, complications, diagnosis, and treatment.

Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Provides basic information about the prostate gland and prostate enlargement. Describes symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

Pylonephritis: Kidney Infection

Lists the causes and symptoms of kidney infection. Explains the use of antibiotics to treat infection.

S

Sexual and Urologic Problems of Diabetes

Describes the sexual and urologic problems that men and women with diabetes may experience. Provides information about causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

Simple Kidney Cysts

Distinguishes between simple kidney cysts and polycystic kidney disease. Explains diagnostic procedures and treatment options.

Statistics, Kidney Diseases

Statistical information on kidney diseases.




T

Tests for Prostate Problems


See
 What I Need to Know about Prostate Problems

The Urinary Tract and How It Works

Details the anatomy and function of the urinary tract, explains the importance of the urinary tract, and describes what affect the amount of urine a person produces.

U


Urethral Stricture


See
 Urinary Retention

Urinary Diversion

Defines urinary diversion. Describes temporary diversions—nephrostomy and urinary catheterization—and permanent diversions—urostomy and continent urinary diversion.

Urinary Incontinence in Children

Discusses the causes of nighttime and daytime incontinence in children, describes medical and behavioral treatments, and lists resources for additional information.

Urinary Incontinence in Men

Explains how nerve problems, prostate enlargement, and treatments for prostate cancer can all cause urinary incontinence in men. Discusses causes, diagnosis, and available treatments.

Urinary Incontinence in Women

Discusses the anatomy of the female urinary system, defines the major types of incontinence in women, describes treatments, and lists resources for additional information.

Urinary Retention

Explains acute urinary retention and chronic urinary retention and lists possible causes and symptoms. Describes diagnosis, treatment options, and complications.

Urinary Tract Infection In Adults

Describes the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

Urinary Tract Infections in Children

Describes the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections in children, explains diagnostic procedures and treatment, and emphasizes the importance of evaluation to prevent permanent damage to a child’s kidneys or urinary system.

Urine Blockage in Newborns

Details the anatomy of the urinary tract and describes birth defects that can block the normal flow of urine. Explains diagnostic procedures and treatment of urine blockage in newborns.

Urodynamic Testing

Describes normal bladder function, as well as problems in the urinary system that may require urodynamic testing. Discusses different urodynamic procedures and why they are used.



V

Vesicoureteral Reflux

Explains how urine may reflux, or flow backward, from the bladder to the kidneys. Describes tests and treatment for this condition.

W

What I need to know about Bladder Control for Women

Provides a comprehensive introduction to the causes, symptoms, and treatments for bladder control problems in women.

What I need to know about Erectile Dysfunction

Describes the physiology of erection and the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of erectile dysfunction.

What I need to know about Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

​Describes the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). Defines the two types of IC, ulcerative and nonulcerative.


What I need to know about Kidney Stones

Uses plain language and illustrations to describe the symptoms and treatment of kidney stones. This publication is also available in Spanish (KU–163).

What I need to know about My Child's Bedwetting

An easy-to-read booklet for parents. Explains why some children take longer to learn how to stay dry at night. Describes options for helping a child develop nighttime bladder control.

What I need to know about My Child's Urinary Tract Infection

Describes signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections in children, explains diagnostic procedures and treatment.

What I Need to Know about Prostate Problems

Discusses prostate problems including prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Reviews common tests performed for these conditions and the side effects of prostate treatments.

What I need to know about Urinary Tract Infections

Describes the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of urinary tract infections.