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What is urinary incontinence (UI) in men?
Urinary incontinence is the loss of bladder control, resulting in the accidental leakage of urine from the body. For example, a man may feel a strong, sudden need, or urgency, to urinate just before losing a large amount of urine, called urgency incontinence.
UI can be slightly bothersome or totally debilitating. For some men, the chance of embarrassment keeps them from enjoying many activities, including exercising, and causes emotional distress. When people are inactive, they increase their chances of developing other health problems, such as obesity and diabetes.
What is the urinary tract and how does it work?
The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system for removing urine, which is composed of wastes and extra fluid. In order for normal urination to occur, all parts in the urinary tract need to work together in the correct order.
Kidneys. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. Every day, the kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine. The kidneys work around the clock; a person does not control what they do.
Ureters. Ureters are the thin tubes of muscle—one on each side of the bladder—that carry urine from each of the kidneys to the bladder.
Bladder. The bladder, located in the pelvis between the pelvic bones, is a hollow, muscular, balloon-shaped organ that expands as it fills with urine. Although a person does not control kidney function, a person does control when the bladder empties. Bladder emptying is known as urination. The bladder stores urine until the person finds an appropriate time and place to urinate. A normal bladder acts like a reservoir and can hold 1.5 to 2 cups of urine. How often a person needs to urinate depends on how quickly the kidneys produce the urine that fills the bladder. The muscles of the bladder wall remain relaxed while the bladder fills with urine. As the bladder fills to capacity, signals sent to the brain tell a person to find a toilet soon. During urination, the bladder empties through the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder.
Three sets of muscles work together like a dam, keeping urine in the bladder between trips to the bathroom.
The first set is the muscles of the urethra itself. The area where the urethra joins the bladder is the bladder neck. The bladder neck, composed of the second set of muscles known as the internal sphincter, helps urine stay in the bladder. The third set of muscles is the pelvic floor muscles, also referred to as the external sphincter, which surround and support the urethra.
To urinate, the brain signals the muscular bladder wall to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincters to relax. As the sphincters relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra.
What is the prostate?
The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system. The prostate has two or more lobes, or sections, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue. Located in front of the rectum and just below the bladder, the prostate surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder and supplies fluid that goes into semen.
What causes urinary incontinence in men?
Urinary incontinence in men results when the brain does not properly signal the bladder, the sphincters do not squeeze strongly enough, or both. The bladder muscle may contract too much or not enough because of a problem with the muscle itself or the nerves controlling the bladder muscle. Damage to the sphincter muscles themselves or the nerves controlling these muscles can result in poor sphincter function. These problems can range from simple to complex.
A man may have factors that increase his chances of developing UI, including
- birth defects—problems with development of the urinary tract
- a history of prostate cancer—surgery or radiation treatment for prostate cancer can lead to temporary or permanent UI in men
UI is not a disease. Instead, it can be a symptom of certain conditions or the result of particular events during a man’s life. Conditions or events that may increase a man’s chance of developing UI include
- benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)—a condition in which the prostate is enlarged yet not cancerous. In men with BPH, the enlarged prostate presses against and pinches the urethra. The bladder wall becomes thicker. Eventually, the bladder may weaken and lose the ability to empty, leaving some urine in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and incomplete emptying of the bladder can lead to UI.
- chronic coughing—long-lasting coughing increases pressure on the bladder and pelvic floor muscles.
- neurological problems—men with diseases or conditions that affect the brain and spine may have trouble controlling urination.
- physical inactivity—decreased activity can increase a man’s weight and contribute to muscle weakness.
- obesity—extra weight can put pressure on the bladder, causing a need to urinate before the bladder is full.
- older age—bladder muscles can weaken over time, leading to a decrease in the bladder’s capacity to store urine.
More information is provided in the NIDDK health topics, Nerve Disease and Bladder Control and Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.
What are the types of urinary incontinence in men?
The types of UI in men include
- urgency incontinence
- stress incontinence
- functional incontinence
- overflow incontinence
- transient incontinence
Urgency incontinence happens when a man urinates involuntarily after he has a strong desire, or urgency, to urinate. Involuntary bladder contractions are a common cause of urgency incontinence. Abnormal nerve signals might cause these bladder contractions.
Triggers for men with urgency incontinence include drinking a small amount of water, touching water, hearing running water, or being in a cold environment—even if for just a short while—such as reaching into the freezer at the grocery store. Anxiety or certain liquids, medications, or medical conditions can make urgency incontinence worse.
The following conditions can damage the spinal cord, brain, bladder nerves, or sphincter nerves, or can cause involuntary bladder contractions leading to urgency incontinence:
- Alzheimer’s disease—a disorder that affects the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, and language
- injury to the brain or spinal cord that interrupts nerve signals to and from the bladder
- multiple sclerosis—a disease that damages the material that surrounds and protects nerve cells, which slows down or blocks messages between the brain and the body
- Parkinson’s disease—a disease in which the cells that make a chemical that controls muscle movement are damaged or destroyed
- stroke—a condition in which a blocked or ruptured artery in the brain or neck cuts off blood flow to part of the brain and leads to weakness, paralysis, or problems with speech, vision, or brain function
Urgency incontinence is a key sign of overactive bladder. Overactive bladder occurs when abnormal nerves send signals to the bladder at the wrong time, causing its muscles to squeeze without enough warning time to get to the toilet. More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Nerve Disease and Bladder Control.
Stress incontinence results from movements that put pressure on the bladder and cause urine leakage, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, or physical activity. In men, stress incontinence may also occur
- after prostate surgery
- after neurologic injury to the brain or spinal cord
- after trauma, such as injury to the urinary tract
- during older age
Functional incontinence occurs when physical disability, external obstacles, or problems in thinking or communicating keep a person from reaching a place to urinate in time. For example, a man with Alzheimer’s disease may not plan ahead for a timely trip to a toilet. A man in a wheelchair may have difficulty getting to a toilet in time. Arthritis—pain and swelling of the joints—can make it hard for a man to walk to the restroom quickly or open his pants in time.
When the bladder doesn’t empty properly, urine spills over, causing overflow incontinence. Weak bladder muscles or a blocked urethra can cause this type of incontinence. Nerve damage from diabetes or other diseases can lead to weak bladder muscles; tumors and urinary stones can block the urethra. Men with overflow incontinence may have to urinate often, yet they release only small amounts of urine or constantly dribble urine.
Transient incontinence is UI that lasts a short time. Transient incontinence is usually a side effect of certain medications, drugs, or temporary conditions, such as
- a urinary tract infection (UTI), which can irritate the bladder and cause strong urges to urinate
- caffeine or alcohol consumption, which can cause rapid filling of the bladder
- chronic coughing, which can put pressure on the bladder
- constipation—hard stool in the rectum can put pressure on the bladder
- blood pressure medications that can cause increased urine production
- short-term mental impairment that reduces a man’s ability to care for himself
- short-term restricted mobility
How common is urinary incontinence in men?
Urinary incontinence occurs in 11 to 34 percent of older men. Two to 11 percent of older men report daily UI.1 Although more women than men develop UI, the chances of a man developing UI increase with age because he is more likely to develop prostate problems as he ages. Men are also less likely to speak with a health care professional about UI, so UI in men is probably far more common than statistics show. Having a discussion with a health care professional about UI is the first step to fixing this treatable problem.
How is urinary incontinence in men diagnosed?
Men should tell a health care professional, such as a family practice physician, a nurse, an internist, or a urologist—a doctor who specializes in urinary problems—they have UI, even if they feel embarrassed. To diagnose UI, the health care professional will
- take a medical history
- conduct a physical exam
- order diagnostic tests
Taking a medical history can help a health care professional diagnose UI. He or she will ask the patient or caretaker to provide a medical history, a review of symptoms, a description of eating habits, and a list of prescription and over-the-counter medications the patient is taking. The health care professional will ask about current and past medical conditions.
The health care professional also will ask about the man’s pattern of urination and urine leakage. To prepare for the visit with the health care professional, a man may want to keep a bladder diary for several days beforehand. Information that a man should record in a bladder diary includes
- the amount and type of liquid he drinks
- how many times he urinates each day and how much urine is released
- how often he has accidental leaks
- whether he felt a strong urge to go before leaking
- what he was doing when the leak occurred, for example, coughing or lifting
- how long the symptoms have been occurring
Use the Daily Bladder Diary to prepare for the appointment.
The health care professional also may ask about other lower urinary tract symptoms that may indicate a prostate problem, such as
- problems starting a urine stream
- problems emptying the bladder completely
- spraying urine
- dribbling urine
- weak stream
- recurrent UTIs
- painful urination
A physical exam may help diagnose UI. The health care professional will perform a physical exam to look for signs of medical conditions that may cause UI. The health care professional may order further neurologic testing if necessary.
Digital rectal exam. The health care professional also may perform a digital rectal exam. A digital rectal exam is a physical exam of the prostate and rectum. To perform the exam, the health care professional has the man bend over a table or lie on his side while holding his knees close to his chest. The health care professional slides a gloved, lubricated finger into the patient’s rectum and feels the part of the prostate that lies in front of the rectum. The digital rectal exam is used to check for stool or masses in the rectum and to assess whether the prostate is enlarged or tender, or has other abnormalities. The health care professional may perform a prostate massage during a digital rectal exam to collect a sample of prostate fluid that he or she can test for signs of infection.
The health care professional may diagnose the type of UI based on the medical history and physical exam, or he or she may use the findings to determine if a man needs further diagnostic testing.
The health care professional may order one or more of the following diagnostic tests based on the results of the medical history and physical exam:
- Urinalysis. Urinalysis involves testing a urine sample. The patient collects a urine sample in a special container at home, at a health care professional’s office, or at a commercial facility. A health care professional tests the sample during an office visit or sends it to a lab for analysis. For the test, a nurse or technician places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the urine. Patches on the dipstick change color to indicate signs of infection in urine.
- Urine culture. A health care professional performs a urine culture by placing part of a urine sample in a tube or dish with a substance that encourages any bacteria present to grow. A man collects the urine sample in a special container in a health care professional’s office or a commercial facility. The office or facility tests the sample onsite or sends it to a lab for culture. A health care professional can identify bacteria that multiply, usually in 1 to 3 days. A health care professional performs a urine culture to determine the best treatment when urinalysis indicates the man has a UTI. More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Urinary Tract Infections in Adults.
- Blood test. A blood test involves drawing blood at a health care professional’s office or a commercial facility and sending the sample to a lab for analysis. The blood test can show kidney function problems or a chemical imbalance in the body. The lab also will test the blood to assess the level of prostate-specific antigen, a protein produced by prostate cells that may be higher in men with prostate cancer.
- Urodynamic testing. Urodynamic testing includes a variety of procedures that look at how well the bladder and urethra store and release urine. A health care professional performs urodynamic tests during an office visit or in an outpatient center or a hospital. Some urodynamic tests do not require anesthesia; others may require local anesthesia. Most urodynamic tests focus on the bladder’s ability to hold urine and empty steadily and completely; they may include the following:
- uroflowmetry, which measures how rapidly the bladder releases urine
- postvoid residual measurement, which evaluates how much urine remains in the bladder after urination
- reduced urine flow or residual urine in the bladder, which often suggests urine blockage due to BPH
More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Urodynamic Testing.
How is urinary incontinence in men treated?
Treatment depends on the type of UI.
As a first line of therapy for urgency incontinence, a health care professional may recommend the following techniques to treat a man’s problem:
- behavioral and lifestyle changes
- bladder training
- pelvic floor exercises
- urgency suppression
If those treatments are not successful, the following additional measures may help urgency incontinence:
- electrical nerve stimulation
- bulking agents
A health care professional may recommend other treatments for men with urgency incontinence caused by BPH. More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.
Behavioral and lifestyle changes. Men with urgency incontinence may be able to reduce leaks by making behavioral and lifestyle changes:
- Eating, diet, and nutrition. Men with urgency incontinence can change the amount and type of liquid they drink. A man can try limiting bladder irritants—including caffeinated drinks such as tea or coffee and carbonated beverages—to decrease leaks. Men also should limit alcoholic drinks, which can increase urine production. A health care professional can help a man determine how much he should drink based on his health, how active he is, and where he lives. To decrease nighttime trips to the restroom, men may want to stop drinking liquids several hours before bed.
- Engaging in physical activity. Although a man may be reluctant to engage in physical activity when he has urgency incontinence, regular exercise is important for good overall health and for preventing and treating UI.
- Losing weight. Men who are overweight should talk with a health care professional about strategies for losing weight, which can help improve UI.
- Preventing constipation. Gastrointestinal (GI) problems, especially constipation, can make urinary tract health worse and can lead to UI. The opposite is also true: Urinary problems, such as UI, can make GI problems worse. More information about how to prevent constipation through diet and physical activity is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Constipation.
To Help Prevent Bladder Problems, Stop Smoking
People who smoke should stop. Quitting smoking at any age promotes bladder health and overall health. Smoking increases a person’s chance of developing stress incontinence, as it increases coughing. Some people say smoking worsens their bladder irritation. Smoking causes most cases of bladder cancer. People who smoke for many years have a higher risk of bladder cancer than nonsmokers or those who smoke for a short time.2 People who smoke should ask for help so they do not have to try quitting alone. Call 1-800-QUITNOW (1-800-784-8669) for more information.
Bladder training. Bladder training is changing urination habits to decrease incidents of UI. The health care professional may suggest a man use the restroom at regular timed intervals, called timed voiding, based on the man’s bladder diary. A man can gradually lengthen the time between trips to the restroom to help stretch the bladder so it can hold more urine.
Pelvic floor muscle exercises. Pelvic floor muscle, or Kegel, exercises involve strengthening pelvic floor muscles. Strong pelvic floor muscles hold in urine more effectively than weak muscles. A man does not need special equipment for Kegel exercises. The exercises involve tightening and relaxing the muscles that control urine flow. Pelvic floor exercises should not be performed during urination. A health care professional can help a man learn proper technique. More information is provided in the NIDDK health topic, Kegel Exercise Tips.
Men also may learn how to perform Kegel exercises properly by using biofeedback. Biofeedback uses special sensors to measure bodily functions, such as muscle contractions that control urination. A video monitor displays the measurements as graphs, and sounds indicate when the man is using the correct muscles. The health care professional uses the information to help the man change abnormal function of the pelvic floor muscles. At home, the man practices to improve muscle function. The man can perform the exercises while lying down, sitting at a desk, or standing up. Success with pelvic floor exercises depends on the cause of UI, its severity, and the man’s ability to perform the exercises.
Urgency suppression. By using certain techniques, a man can suppress the urge to urinate, called urgency suppression. Urgency suppression is a way for a man to train his bladder to maintain control so he does not have to panic about finding a restroom. Some men use distraction techniques to take their mind off the urge to urinate. Other men find taking long, relaxing breaths and being still can help. Doing pelvic floor exercises also can help suppress the urge to urinate.
Medications. Health care professionals may prescribe medications that relax the bladder, decrease bladder spasms, or treat prostate enlargement to treat urgency incontinence in men.
- Antimuscarinics. Antimuscarinics can help relax bladder muscles and prevent bladder spasms. These medications include oxybutynin (Oxytrol), tolterodine (Detrol), darifenacin (Enablex), trospium (Sanctura), fesoterodine (Toviaz), and solifenacin (VESIcare). They are available in pill, liquid, and patch form.
- Tricyclic antidepressants. Tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine (Tofranil) can calm nerve signals, decreasing spasms in bladder muscles.
- Alpha-blockers. Terazosin (Hytrin), doxazosin (Cardura), tamsulosin (Flomax), alfuzosin (Uroxatral), and silodosin (Rapaflo) are used to treat problems caused by prostate enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction. These medications relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck, which lets urine flow normally and prevents abnormal bladder contractions that can lead to urgency incontinence.
- 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. Finasteride (Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart) block the production of the male hormone dihydrotestosterone, which accumulates in the prostate and may cause prostate growth. These medications may help to relieve urgency incontinence problems by shrinking an enlarged prostate.
- Beta-3 agonists. Mirabegron (Myrbetriq) is a beta-3 agonist a person takes by mouth to help prevent symptoms of urgency incontinence. Mirabegron suppresses involuntary bladder contractions.
- Botox. A health care professional may use onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox), also called botulinum toxin type A, to treat UI in men with neurological conditions such as spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis. Injecting Botox into the bladder relaxes the bladder, increasing storage capacity and decreasing UI. A health care professional performs the procedure during an office visit. A man receives local anesthesia. The health care professional uses a cystoscope to guide the needle for injecting the Botox. Botox is effective for up to 10 months.3
Electrical nerve stimulation. If behavioral and lifestyle changes and medications do not improve symptoms, a urologist may suggest electrical nerve stimulation as an option to prevent UI, urinary frequency—urination more often than normal—and other symptoms. Electrical nerve stimulation involves altering bladder reflexes using pulses of electricity. The two most common types of electrical nerve stimulation are percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation.4
- Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation uses electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve, which is located in the ankle, on a weekly basis. The patient receives local anesthesia for the procedure. In an outpatient center, a urologist inserts a battery-operated stimulator beneath the skin near the tibial nerve. Electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve prevents bladder activity by interfering with the pathway between the bladder and the spinal cord or brain. Although researchers consider percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation safe, they continue to study the exact ways that it prevents symptoms and how long the treatment can last.
- Sacral nerve stimulation involves implanting a battery-operated stimulator beneath the skin in the lower back near the sacral nerve. The procedure takes place in an outpatient center using local anesthesia. Based on the patient’s feedback, the health care professional can adjust the amount of stimulation so it works best for that individual. The electrical pulses enter the body for minutes to hours, two or more times a day, either through wires placed on the lower back or just above the pubic area—between the navel and the pubic hair. Sacral nerve stimulation may increase blood flow to the bladder, strengthen pelvic muscles that help control the bladder, and trigger the release of natural substances that block pain. The patient can turn the stimulator on or off at any time.
A patient may consider getting an implanted device that delivers regular impulses to the bladder. A urologist places a wire next to the tailbone and attaches it to a permanent stimulator under the skin.
Bulking agents. A urologist injects bulking agents, such as collagen and carbon spheres, near the urinary sphincter to treat incontinence. The bulking agent makes the tissues thicker and helps close the bladder opening. Before the procedure, the health care professional may perform a skin test to make sure the man doesn’t have an allergic reaction to the bulking agent. A urologist performs the procedure during an office visit. The man receives local anesthesia. The urologist uses a cystoscope—a tubelike instrument used to look inside the urethra and bladder—to guide the needle for injection of the bulking agent. Over time, the body may slowly eliminate certain bulking agents, so a man may need to have injections again.
Surgery. As a last resort, surgery to treat urgency incontinence in men includes the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and the male sling. A health care professional performs the surgery in a hospital with regional or general anesthesia. Most men can leave the hospital the same day, although some may need to stay overnight.
- AUS. An AUS is an implanted device that keeps the urethra closed until the man is ready to urinate. The device has three parts: a cuff that fits around the urethra, a small balloon reservoir placed in the abdomen, and a pump placed in the scrotum—the sac that holds the testicles. The cuff contains a liquid that makes it fit tightly around the urethra to prevent urine from leaking. When it is time to urinate, the man squeezes the pump with his fingers to deflate the cuff. The liquid moves to the balloon reservoir and lets urine flow through the urethra. When the bladder is empty, the cuff automatically refills in the next 2 to 5 minutes to keep the urethra tightly closed.
- Male sling. A health care professional performs a sling procedure, also called urethral compression procedure, to add support to the urethra, which can sometimes better control urination. Through an incision in the tissue between the scrotum and the rectum, also called the perineum, the health care professional uses a piece of human tissue or mesh to compress the urethra against the pubic bone. The surgeon secures the ends of the tissue or mesh around the pelvic bones. The lifting and compression of the urethra sometimes provides better control over urination.
Men who have stress incontinence can use the same techniques for treating urgency incontinence.
Men with functional incontinence may wear protective undergarments if they worry about reaching a restroom in time. These products include adult diapers or pads and are available from drugstores, grocery stores, and medical supply stores. Men who have functional incontinence should talk to a health care professional about its cause and how to prevent or treat functional incontinence.
A health care professional treats overflow incontinence caused by a blockage in the urinary tract with surgery to remove the obstruction. Men with overflow incontinence that is not caused by a blockage may need to use a catheter to empty the bladder. A catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is inserted through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. A health care professional can teach a man how to use a catheter. A man may need to use a catheter once in a while, a few times a day, or all the time. Catheters that are used continuously drain urine from the bladder into a bag that is attached to the man’s thigh with a strap. Men using a continuous catheter should watch for symptoms of an infection.
A health care professional treats transient incontinence by addressing the underlying cause. For example, if a medication is causing increased urine production leading to UI, a health care professional may try lowering the dose or prescribing a different medication. A health care professional may prescribe bacteria-fighting medications called antibiotics to treat UTIs.
Points to Remember
- Urinary incontinence (UI) is the loss of bladder control, resulting in the accidental leakage of urine from the body.
- The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system for removing urine, which is composed of wastes and extra fluid.
- Every day, the kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine.
- To urinate, the brain signals the muscular bladder wall to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincters to relax. As the sphincters relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra.
- UI results when the brain does not properly signal the bladder, the sphincters do not squeeze strongly enough, or both.
- Urgency incontinence happens when a man urinates involuntarily after he has a strong desire, or urgency, to urinate.
- Stress incontinence results from movements that put pressure on the bladder and cause urine leakage, such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, or physical activity.
- Functional incontinence occurs when physical disability, external obstacles, or problems in thinking or communicating keep a person from reaching a place to urinate in time.
- When the bladder doesn’t empty properly, urine spills over, causing overflow incontinence. Weak bladder muscles or a blocked urethra can cause this type of incontinence.
- Transient incontinence is UI that lasts a short time. Transient incontinence is usually a side effect of certain medications, drugs, or temporary conditions.
- UI occurs in 11 to 34 percent of older men.
- Men should tell a health care professional, such as a family practice physician, a nurse, an internist, or a urologist, they have UI, even if they feel embarrassed.
- Treatment depends on the type of UI. Some types of treatment include behavioral and lifestyle changes, bladder training, pelvic floor exercises, and urgency suppression.
- People who smoke should stop. Quitting smoking at any age promotes bladder health and overall health.
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