Any grain that is not a whole grain
is a refined grain. This includes grains and grain products missing the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. Many refined grains are low in fiber and enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin and fortified with folic acid as required by U.S. regulations. Some examples of refined grain products are white flour, white bread and tortillas, and white rice.
Registered Dietitian (R.D.) A person who has studied diet and nutrition at a college program approved by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (formerly the American Dietetic Association). To become an R.D., a person must complete 900 hours of supervised practical experience accredited by the Commission on the Accreditation for Dietetics Education and must pass an exam.
Saturated fat (SATCH-er-ay-ted) This type of fat is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found in full-fat dairy products (like butter, cheese, cream, regular ice cream, and whole milk), coconut oil, lard, palm oil, ready-to-eat meats, and the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, among other foods. Saturated fats have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated fat also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.
Serving size A standard amount of a food, such as a cup or an ounce.
These types of fats are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid fats are found in most animal foods but also can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation.
Some common solid fats in our diet include beef fat, butter, chicken fat, coconut oil, palm oil, pork fat (lard), shortening, and stick margarine. Foods high in solid fats include full-fat (regular) cheese, cream, ice cream, and whole milk; bacon, poultry skin, regular ground beef, sausages, and well-marbled cuts of meats; and many baked goods (such as cookies, crackers, croissants, donuts, and pastries).
Stroke A stroke occurs when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. "Mini-strokes," or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is stopped for a short time
Drinks that are sweetened with added sugars
often add a large number of calories. These beverages include, but are not limited to, energy and sports drinks, fruit drinks, soda, and fruit juices.
Trans fatty acids
A type of fat produced when liquid fats (oils) are turned into solid fats through a chemical process called hydrogenation.
Eating a large amount of trans fatty acid, or "trans fats," also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.
Triglycerides (Try-GLIH-ser-ides) A type of fat in your blood, triglycerides can contribute to the hardening and narrowing of your arteries if levels are too high. This puts you at risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Triglycerides are measured along with cholesterol as part of a blood test. Normal triglyceride levels are below 150 mg/dL. Levels above 200 mg/dL are high.
Type 1 diabetes (dye-ah-BEET-eez) Type 1 diabetes is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. (An autoimmune disorder occurs when the body's immune system, which usually helps the body fight diseases, turns against its own tissue.) Type 1 diabetes was known as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus," or "juvenile diabetes." Without insulin, the body is not able to use blood sugar (glucose) for energy. To treat the disease, a person must inject insulin, exercise daily, and test blood sugar several times a day.
Type 2 diabetes (dye-ah-BEET-eez) People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but either do not make enough insulin or their bodies do not efficiently use the insulin they make. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to control their condition by losing weight through diet and exercise. They may also need to inject insulin or take medicine along with continuing to follow a healthy eating pattern and being physically active on a regular basis. Type 2 diabetes was known as "noninsulin-dependent diabetes" or "adult-onset diabetes" and is the most common form of diabetes. Children and adolescents who are overweight may also be at risk to develop type 2 diabetes.
Unsaturated fat (un-SATCH-er-ay-ted)
Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Vegetable oils are a major source of unsaturated fat in the diet. Unsaturated fats include polyunsaturated fats
and monounsaturated fats.
Other foods, such as avocados, fatty fish like salmon and tuna, most nuts, and olives are good sources of unsaturated fat.
Very low-calorie diet (VLCD) A VLCD is a diet supervised by a health care professional that typically uses commercially prepared formulas to promote rapid weight loss in some patients who are considered to be obese. People on a VLCD consume about 800 calories a day or less.
Waist circumference Excess fat around the waist and a larger waist size increase the risk of health problems linked to obesity. Women with a waist size of more than 35 inches or men with a waist size of more than 40 inches have a higher risk of developing health problems linked to obesity, such as diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
Weight control This refers to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight with healthy eating and physical activity
Weight-cycling This refers to losing and gaining weight over and over again.
Whole grains Grains and grain products made from the entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, endosperm, and germ as the original grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all, whole grains are also a source of dietary fiber.
Whole wheat grains
Grains and grain products made from the entire wheat kernel [see whole grains.
Weight-control Information Network
The Weight-control Information Network (WIN) is a national information service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). WIN provides the general public, health professionals, and the media with up-to-date, culturally relevant materials and tips. Topics include how to consume healthy foods and beverages, barriers to physical activity, portion control, and eating and physical activity myths. Publications produced by WIN are reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. This e-text was also reviewed by Van S. Hubbard, M.D., Ph.D., Director, Division of Nutrition Research Coordination, NIH; Ana Terry, M.S., R.D., National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and Susan Z. Yanovski, M.D., Co-Director, Office of Obesity Research, NIDDK.
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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES
National Institutes of Health