Aug 31, 2015
Functional footprinting of regulatory DNA
Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor (TF) recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe an approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide resolution.
NIDDK Director’s Update
Features updates on NIH and NIDDK activities, events, NIDDK-specific plans, and trans-NIH issues.
Jul 2, 2015
Genetic Variation Determines PPARγ Function and Anti-diabetic Drug Response In Vivo
SNPs affecting disease risk often reside in non-coding genomic regions. Here, we show that SNPs are highly enriched at mouse strain-selective adipose tissue binding sites for PPARγ, a nuclear receptor for anti-diabetic drugs. Many such SNPs alter binding motifs for PPARγ or cooperating factors and functionally regulate nearby genes whose expression is strain selective and imbalanced in heterozygous F1 mice.
Jul 1, 2015
Hypoactivity following perturbed estrogen signaling in the medial amygdala
Activation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the brain prevents obesity as the result of increased energy expenditure and decreased food intake. While ERα is present on several neural populations, it is not clear how different regions of the brain mediate the weight-regulating effects of ERα activation.
Jun 22, 2015
Estrogen receptor–α in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight
Estrogens play critical roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Depletion of endogenous estrogens in female rodents, via ovariectomy (OVX), causes increased body weight and hyperadiposity (1,2). 17β-estradiol replacement can prevent obesity in OVX female animals (1).
May 11, 2015
Ease of weight loss influenced by individual biology
For the first time in a lab, researchers at the National Institutes of Health found evidence supporting the commonly held belief that people with certain physiologies lose less weight than others when limiting calories.
May 6, 2015
Identification of a plant isoflavonoid that causes biliary atresia
Biliary atresia (BA) is a rapidly progressive and destructive fibrotic disorder of unknown etiology affecting the extrahepatic biliary tree of neonates. Epidemiological studies suggest that an environmental factor, such as a virus or toxin, is the cause of the disease, although none have been definitively established.
Apr 8, 2015
Allergy drug inhibits hepatitis C in mice
An over-the-counter drug indicated to treat allergy symptoms limited hepatitis C virus activity in infected mice, according to a National Institutes of Health study.