22 December 2013
Analysis: Dietary supplements increasingly linked to liver injuries
In a 1,300-word article on its front page, the New York Times (12/22, A1, O'Connor, Subscription Publication) reported that an analysis by the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network, which was established by the National Institutes of Health, indicated that "dietary supplements account for nearly 20 percent of drug-related liver injuries that turn up in hospitals, up from 7 percent a decade ago." The findings "included only the most severe cases of liver damage referred to a representative group of hospitals around the country, and the investigators said they were undercounting the actual number of cases." Some of these patients ultimately need a liver transplant or will die due to liver failure. The article discusses the loosely regulated supplement industry in the US.
NIDDK Director’s Update
Features updates on NIH and NIDDK activities, events, NIDDK-specific plans, and trans-NIH issues.
21 November 2013
Growth more stunted in lower-income youth with kidney disease
Even with more prescriptions for growth hormone, children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease were less likely to grow to normal height ranges if they came from lower-income families, according to research funded by the National Institutes of Health. Results from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study are published in the December issue of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases and online today at http://www.ajkd.org.
14 November 2013
NIH statement: Family support key to diabetes prevention, management
Diabetes does not strike a person alone. It strikes families and communities. It strikes our nation and the world. During today’s World Diabetes Day and National Diabetes Month this November, we at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, renew our efforts to prevent, manage and one day cure diabetes. As well, we encourage families to take steps to improve their health and work together to fight diabetes and its serious and sometimes fatal consequences.
12 November 2013
NIH: Gene hastens kidney disease progression in African-Americans
A gene variant common in African-Americans predicts that people with that gene who also have chronic kidney disease (CKD) are twice as likely to progress to kidney failure as African-Americans without the high-risk gene and white people with CKD. People with the high-risk gene also tend to lose kidney function at twice the rate of those without the gene, according to the research, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
04 November 2013
Study shows adults had significant weight loss three years after bariatric surgery
National Institutes of Health-funded researchers found that adults had significant weight loss three years after bariatric surgery, with the majority losing the most weight during the first year. A separate study in teens found few incidences of complications in the first 30 days after bariatric surgery. These studies are part of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) and Teen-LABS. More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese, defined as having a body mass index or BMI of 30 or higher, and almost 17 percent of youth are also obese. Severe obesity is a BMI of 35 or more in adults and teens. BMI measures weight in relation to height.
Features new and updated materials, research updates, and partner highlights.
NKDEP Lab News
Provides laboratory professionals with the latest in clinical professional news from the National Kidney Disease Education Program’s Laboratory Working Group.
NDEP News & Notes
Features information on National Diabetes Education Program activities, messages and products.
Make the Kidney Connection
Features NKDEP community activities, tips for talking about kidney health, and materials to use in health education.
21 October 2013
Large study to examine if vitamin D prevents diabetes
Researchers have begun the first definitive, large-scale clinical trial to investigate if a vitamin D supplement helps prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in adults who have pre-diabetes andwho are at high risk for developing type 2. Funded by the NIH, the study is taking place at about 20 study sites across the United States.
NKDEP Nutrition News
Provides updates with registered dietitians and nutritionists on new diet-related materials and activities, and opportunities to assist NKDEP and its efforts.
09 September 2013
Media Advisory: NIH grants expand search for role of microbes in health and disease in adults, infants
People are host to trillions of microbes living on their skin and in the gut, vagina, mouth, nose, lungs, and penis. These microbes live as communities in and on the human body and are known as the human microbiome. For the most part, we peacefully co-exist with these microbes. But sometimes some of these microorganisms such as, bacteria, can trigger responses that may cause people to develop a disease. To better understand how and why alteration of the normal microbiome at various body sites promotes diseases, the National Institutes of Health will fund three innovative research projects for the next 3 years.
01 August 2013
Removing a protein enhances defense against bacteria in CGD mice
Deletion of a protein in white blood cells improves their ability to fight the bacteria staphylococcus aureus and possibly other infections in mice with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), according to a NIH study. CGD, a genetic disorder also found in people, is marked by recurrent, life-threatening infections. The study’s findings appear online in The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
29 July 2013
NIH expands study to better understand kidney disease progression
Researchers from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study are embarking on another five years of work to identify risk factors for progression of early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), better understand the importance of reduced kidney function in older persons, and learn what role CKD may play in other illnesses that require hospitalization. CRIC is supported by the National Institutes of Health.
23 July 2013
Fat cells directly sense temperature to activate thermogenesis
[Harvard Medical School] Classic brown fat and inducible beige fat both dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the actions of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1. This nonshivering thermogenesis is crucial for mammals as a defense against cold and obesity/diabetes.
08 July 2013
Mechanism-based corrector combination restores ΔF508-CFTR folding and function.
[McGill University] To better understand the difficulty of looking for a cure, or even effective treatment, one must understand the large and complex nature of the CFTR protein. It is made up of 1,480 amino acids strung together in five three-dimensional strands (called domains) that spin together and fold to act as building blocks for the CFTR protein.
03 June 2013
NIH begins recruitment for long-term study of diabetes drug efficacy
The NIH is looking for volunteers to take part in a study to compare the long-term benefits and risks of four widely used diabetes drugs in combination with metformin, the most common first-line medication for treating type 2 diabetes. Beginning recruitment in June, the project is called the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness (GRADE) Study.
22 May 2013
NIH funds studies to improve type 2 and prediabetes treatment
The NIH is looking for volunteers to take part in one of three clinical trials to improve and preserve the production of insulin in people with pre-diabetes or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The project is called the Restoring Insulin Secretion study (RISE).
08 May 2013
Genomic Diversity and Fitness of E. coli Strains Recovered from the Intestinal and Urinary Tracts of Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
[Washington University in St. Louis] Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, and recurrence is a major clinical problem. Most UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC are generally thought to migrate from the gut to the bladder to cause UTI. UPEC form specialized intracellular bacterial communities in the bladder urothelium as part of a pathogenic mechanism to establish a foothold during acute stages of infection. Evolutionarily, such a specific adaptation to the bladder environment would be predicted to result in decreased fitness in other habitats, such as the gut. To examine this prediction, we characterized 45 E. coli strains isolated from the feces and urine of four otherwise healthy women with recurrent UTI.
07 May 2013
Type 1 diabetes network expands reach with online sign-up, nationwide testing
People with a family history of type 1 diabetes can now conveniently participate in free screening to help find ways to delay or prevent the disease, even if they live far from a study site. This alternative to site-based initial screening comes as modern technology enables more secure online registration for medical research.
01 May 2013
Hypothalamic programming of systemic ageing involving IKK-β, NF-κB and GnRH
[Albert Einstein College of Medicine] While the search continues for the Fountain of Youth, researchers may have found the body’s “fountain of aging”: the brain region known as the hypothalamus. For the first time, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University report that the hypothalamus of mice controls aging throughout the body. Their discovery of a specific age-related signaling pathway opens up new strategies for combating diseases of old age and extending lifespan.
04 April 2013
Renoprotective effect of combined inhibition of Angiotensin-converting enzyme and histone deacetylase
[Mt. Sinai School of Medicine] The Connectivity Map database contains microarray signatures of gene expression derived from approximately 6000 experiments that examined the effects of approximately 1300 single drugs on several human cancer cell lines. We used these data to prioritize pairs of drugs expected to reverse the changes in gene expression observed in the kidneys of a mouse model of HIV-associated nephropathy (Tg26 mice).
31 March 2013
Recessive mutations in DGKE cause atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome
[Yale University School of Medicine] Pathologic thrombosis is a major cause of mortality. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) features episodes of small-vessel thrombosis resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. Atypical HUS (aHUS) can result from genetic or autoimmune factors that lead to pathologic complement cascade activation.
13 March 2013
Differential stem- and progenitor-cell trafficking by prostaglandin E2
[Indiana University School of Medicine] INDIANAPOLIS -- Scientists say that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be a boon to doctors gathering stem cells for transplants to treat patients with blood or bone marrow cancers, including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
The compounds, known as NSAIDs and which include aspirin, ibuprofen and other painkillers, increased the number of stem and progenitor cells harvested from the blood in animal testing and a small human study, according to work published online Wednesday in the journal Nature by a research team led by Indiana University School of Medicine scientists.
13 March 2013
NIH highlights lifelong impact of acute kidney injury
In observance of World Kidney Day on March 14, the NIH is raising awareness of the long term effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) — a sudden loss of kidney function. Research funded by the NIH’s NIDDK suggests survivors of AKI have a lifelong increased risk for developing permanent kidney damage, resulting in decreased kidney function.
07 March 2013
High Resolution Helium Ion Scanning Microscopy of the Rat Kidney
[Harvard Medical School] Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture.
26 February 2013
Olfactory receptor responding to gut microbiota-derived signals plays a role in renin secretion and blood pressure regulation
[Johns Hopkins University School of Med] Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University and Yale University have discovered that a specialized receptor, normally found in the nose, is also in blood vessels throughout the body, sensing small molecules created by microbes that line mammalian intestines, and responding to these molecules by increasing blood pressure. The finding suggests that gut bacteria are an integral part of the body’s complex system for maintaining a stable blood pressure.