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NIDDK Newsletter

Features information about newly available datasets and materials from NIDDK-funded studies.

NIDDK Newsletter

NIDDK's Health Information News is an e-newsletter that provides subscribers with information from all of the NIDDK's health communications programs, including the National Diabetes Education Program; the National Kidney Disease Education Program; the Weight-control Information Network; the clearinghouses for diabetes, digestive diseases, and kidney and urologic diseases; and the information services for blood diseases and endocrine and metabolic diseases.

NIDDK News Item

Apr 18, 2016

New clinical trial results show that transplantation of pancreatic islets — cell clusters that contain insulin-producing cells—prevents severe, potentially life-threatening drops in blood sugar in people with type 1 diabetes. Researchers found that the treatment was effective for people who experienced episodes of severe hypoglycemia — low blood sugar levels that can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness and death — despite receiving expert care.

NIDDK News Item

Apr 18, 2016

Sticking to a healthy diet in the years after pregnancy may reduce the risk of high blood pressure among women who had pregnancy-related (gestational) diabetes, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health and other institutions. The study was published in Hypertension.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 5, 2016

[University of Texas; Medical University of South Carolina] Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome of severe, rapid-onset hepatic dysfunction without prior advanced liver disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intensive care and liver transplantation provide support and rescue, respectively.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 1, 2016

[University of Washington; Indiana University] Ultrasonic propulsion is a new technology using focused ultrasound energy applied transcutaneously to reposition kidney stones. We report what are to our knowledge the findings from the first human investigational trial of ultrasonic propulsion toward the applications of expelling small stones and dislodging large obstructing stones.

NIDDK News Item

Mar 29, 2016

Children with Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide as well as for depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions long after their disease has been successfully treated, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.

NIDDK Newsletter

Features updates on NIH and NIDDK activities, events, NIDDK-specific plans, and trans-NIH issues.

NIDDK News Item

Mar 10, 2016

During National Kidney Month — and World Kidney Day — the National Institutes of Health encourages you to think about how to protect your children’s kidneys, for today and for a lifetime. While most children with kidney disease were born with urinary tract problems or inherited diseases that put them at risk, some develop kidney disease as they age due to growing problems of young people, such as type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

NIDDK News Item

Mar 4, 2016

WASHINGTON, March 4, 2016 – Today, the Interagency Committee on Human Nutrition Research (ICHNR) released the first Nutrition Research Roadmap designed to guide federal nutrition research. The 2016-2021 National Nutrition Research Roadmap encourages an increased focus on research that can lead to more individualized advice for promoting health and preventing disease.

NIDDK News Item

Mar 1, 2016

Christopher J. Lynch, Ph.D., has been named the new director of the Office of Nutrition Research (ONR) and chief of the Nutrition Research Branch within the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK).

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 1, 2016

[Harvard Medical School] The safety and efficacy of continuous, multiday, automated glycaemic management has not been tested in outpatient studies of preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a bihormonal bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in this population of patients in an outpatient setting.

NIDDK News Item

Feb 29, 2016

A two-year clinical trial that compared three drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) found that gains in vision were greater for participants receiving the drug Eylea (aflibercept) than for those receiving Avastin (bevacizumab), but only among participants starting treatment with 20/50 or worse vision.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 25, 2016

[Washington University] Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month-postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in those with severely stunted infants.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 19, 2016

[Washington University] As we come to appreciate how our microbial communities (microbiota) assemble following birth, there is an opportunity to determine how this facet of our developmental biology relates to the healthy or impaired growth of infants and children. Childhood undernutrition is a devastating global health problem whose long-term sequelae, including stunting, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and immune dysfunction, remain largely refractory to current therapeutic interventions.

NIDDK News Item

Feb 17, 2016

Pioglitazone, a drug used for type 2 diabetes, may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks in people with insulin resistance but without diabetes.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 15, 2016

Nephron endowment is determined by the self-renewal and induction of a nephron progenitor pool established at the onset of kidney development. In the mouse, the related transcriptional regulators Six1 and Six2 play non-overlapping roles in nephron progenitors. Transient Six1 activity prefigures, and is essential for, active nephrogenesis.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 12, 2016

[University of Colorado] T cell–mediated destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas causes type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4 T cell responses play a central role in β cell destruction, but the identity of the epitopes recognized by pathogenic CD4 T cells remains unknown.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 9, 2016

[Baylor College of Medicine] To evaluate mini-dose glucagon in adults with type 1 diabetes using a stable, liquid, ready-to-use preparation. Research Design and Methods Twelve adults with type 1 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin pumps received subcutaneous doses of 75, 150, and 300 μg of nonaqueous glucagon.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 1, 2016

[Johns Hopkins University; Yale University] Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide and have been linked to acute interstitial nephritis. Less is known about the association between PPI use and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 29, 2016

[University of Iowa] Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 25, 2016

[Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Harvard University] The transplantation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells offers the potential for restoring glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Pancreas transplantation and the infusion of cadaveric islets are currently implemented clinically, but these approaches are limited by the adverse effects of immunosuppressive therapy over the lifetime of the recipient and the limited supply of donor tissue.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 25, 2016

[Massachusetts Institute of Technology] The foreign body response is an immune-mediated reaction that can lead to the failure of implanted medical devices and discomfort for the recipient. There is a critical need for biomaterials that overcome this key challenge in the development of medical devices. Here we use a combinatorial approach for covalent chemical modification to generate a large library of variants of one of the most widely used hydrogel biomaterials, alginate.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 21, 2016

[International Consortium of a large number of universities] Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 15, 2016

[Harvard Medical School] Genes encoding human β-type globin undergo a developmental switch from embryonic to fetal to adult-type expression. Mutations in the adult form cause inherited hemoglobinopathies or globin disorders, including sickle cell disease and thalassemia.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 15, 2016

[Columbia University; California Institute of Technology] Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA–linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 14, 2016

[University of Cincinnati; University of Pittsburgh; Baylor College of Medicine; University of Buffalo; University of Alabama] Severe obesity affects 4.4 million children and adolescents in the United States, and few effective treatments are available. Particular concern has centered on health problems among severely obese adolescents and possible treatment with bariatric surgery.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 13, 2016

[Stanford University; Harvard University] The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism. The reduced diversity of the gut microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 9, 2016

[University of Montreal] Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

NIDDK News Item

Jan 7, 2016

WASHINGTON, Jan. 7, 2016 – Secretary of Health and Human Services Sylvia M. Burwell and Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack today released updated nutritional guidelines that encourage Americans to adopt a series of science-based recommendations to improve how they eat to reduce obesity and prevent chronic diseases like Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 6, 2016

[University of Cambridge, UK] To evaluate feasibility, safety, and efficacy of day-and-night hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery in adolescents with type 1 diabetes under free-living conditions without remote monitoring or supervision.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 1, 2016

[Harvard Medical School] Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells.

NIDDK Grantee News

Dec 29, 2015

[University of Iowa] Exercise remains the most effective way to promote physical and metabolic wellbeing, but molecular mechanisms underlying exercise tolerance and its plasticity are only partially understood. In this study we identify musclin—a peptide with high homology to natriuretic peptides (NP)—as an exercise-responsive myokine that acts to enhance exercise capacity in mice.

NIDDK Grantee News

Dec 17, 2015

[University of Southern California; University of California, Los Angeles] Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for developing functional gastrointestinal disorders, and has been proposed to be related to a central amplification of sensory input and resultant visceral hyperalgesia. We sought to characterize ELS-related changes in functional brain responses during acute noxious visceral stimulation.

NIDDK News Item

Dec 16, 2015

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) today released the NIH-Wide Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2016–2020: Turning Discovery Into Health, which will ensure the agency remains well positioned to capitalize on new opportunities for scientific exploration and address new challenges for human health.

NIDDK Grantee News

Dec 1, 2015

[University of Colorado; George Washington University; University of Oklahoma] To determine whether clinically accessible parameters early in the course of youth-onset type 2 diabetes predict likelihood of durable control on oral therapy. Research Design and Methods Today was a randomized clinical trial of adolescents with type 2 diabetes.

NIDDK News Item

Nov 17, 2015

WHAT: An analysis by National Institutes of Health researchers has shown that people with sickle cell anemia who took the drug hydroxyurea at the recommended dose had higher survival rates than those who took less than the recommended dose. The findings appear in the journal PLOS ONE.

NIDDK News Item

Nov 16, 2015

A clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health has found that the drug ranibizumab (Lucentis) is highly effective in treating proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 11, 2015

[Yale University] Kidney transplantation is often the most effective therapy for end-stage renal disease, but there are not enough donor organs to meet the rising demand. Tissue engineering of kidneys is a potential solution to this organ shortage. Achieving microvascular perfusion has been a major barrier to engineering tissues beyond thin muscularized sheets such as the bladder wall.

NIDDK News Item

Nov 9, 2015

NIH-supported researchers are reporting more details on a landmark study that announced preliminary findings in September showing a lower blood pressure target can save lives and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in a group of non-diabetic adults 50 years and older with high blood pressure.

NIDDK News Item

Nov 4, 2015

A National Institutes of Health study found that non-invasive brain stimulation decreased calorie consumption and increased weight loss in adults who are obese.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 3, 2015

[University of California, Los Angeles] A majority of the subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show increased behavioral and brain responses to expected and delivered aversive visceral stimuli during controlled rectal balloon distension, and during palpation of the sigmoid colon. We aimed to determine if altered brain responses to cued and uncued pain expectation are also seen in the context of a noxious somatic pain stimulus applied to the same dermatome as the sigmoid colon.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 3, 2015

A diurnal rhythm of eating-fasting promotes health, but the eating pattern of humans is rarely assessed. Using a mobile app, we monitored ingestion events in healthy adults with no shift-work for several days. Most subjects ate frequently and erratically throughout wakeful hours, and overnight fasting duration paralleled time in bed.

NIDDK News Item

Nov 2, 2015

During National Diabetes Month, including World Diabetes Day on Nov. 14, the National Institutes of Health urges you to think about the important role you play in diabetes education and support.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 1, 2015

[University of California, Berkeley; École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland] Novel, clinically relevant, approaches to shift energy balance are urgently needed to combat metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. One promising approach has been the expansion of brown adipose tissues that express uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and thus can uncouple mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis.

NIDDK News Item

Oct 29, 2015

A single variation in the gene for brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) may influence obesity in children and adults, according to a new study funded by the National Institutes of Health.