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NIDDK Grantee News

Aug 28, 2013

[Wright State University] In adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD), cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk for CKD progression and transplant failure. In children, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure has been associated with elevated blood pressure. There are no studies on the prevalence and effect of SHS exposure in CKD.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jul 23, 2013

[Harvard Medical School] Classic brown fat and inducible beige fat both dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the actions of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1. This nonshivering thermogenesis is crucial for mammals as a defense against cold and obesity/diabetes.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jul 08, 2013

[McGill University] To better understand the difficulty of looking for a cure, or even effective treatment, one must understand the large and complex nature of the CFTR protein. It is made up of 1,480 amino acids strung together in five three-dimensional strands (called domains) that spin together and fold to act as building blocks for the CFTR protein.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jun 06, 2013

[Harvard Medical School] Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and hematopoietic dysfunction, is caused by mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene.

NIDDK Grantee News

May 08, 2013

[Washington University in St. Louis] Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women, and recurrence is a major clinical problem. Most UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC are generally thought to migrate from the gut to the bladder to cause UTI. UPEC form specialized intracellular bacterial communities in the bladder urothelium as part of a pathogenic mechanism to establish a foothold during acute stages of infection. Evolutionarily, such a specific adaptation to the bladder environment would be predicted to result in decreased fitness in other habitats, such as the gut. To examine this prediction, we characterized 45 E. coli strains isolated from the feces and urine of four otherwise healthy women with recurrent UTI.

NIDDK Grantee News

May 01, 2013

[Albert Einstein College of Medicine] While the search continues for the Fountain of Youth, researchers may have found the body’s “fountain of aging”: the brain region known as the hypothalamus. For the first time, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University report that the hypothalamus of mice controls aging throughout the body. Their discovery of a specific age-related signaling pathway opens up new strategies for combating diseases of old age and extending lifespan.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 25, 2013

[Harvard University] Researchers at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) have discovered a hormone that holds promise for a dramatically more effective treatment of type 2 diabetes, a metabolic illness afflicting an estimated 26 million Americans.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 04, 2013

[Mt. Sinai School of Medicine] The Connectivity Map database contains microarray signatures of gene expression derived from approximately 6000 experiments that examined the effects of approximately 1300 single drugs on several human cancer cell lines. We used these data to prioritize pairs of drugs expected to reverse the changes in gene expression observed in the kidneys of a mouse model of HIV-associated nephropathy (Tg26 mice).

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 31, 2013

[Yale University School of Medicine] Pathologic thrombosis is a major cause of mortality. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) features episodes of small-vessel thrombosis resulting in microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal failure. Atypical HUS (aHUS) can result from genetic or autoimmune factors that lead to pathologic complement cascade activation.

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 27, 2013

[Harvard University] Scientists at Harvard may have new hope for people struggling with obesity.

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 13, 2013

[Indiana University School of Medicine] INDIANAPOLIS -- Scientists say that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be a boon to doctors gathering stem cells for transplants to treat patients with blood or bone marrow cancers, including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma. The compounds, known as NSAIDs and which include aspirin, ibuprofen and other painkillers, increased the number of stem and progenitor cells harvested from the blood in animal testing and a small human study, according to work published online Wednesday in the journal Nature by a research team led by Indiana University School of Medicine scientists.

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 07, 2013

[Harvard Medical School] Helium ion scanning microscopy is a novel imaging technology with the potential to provide sub-nanometer resolution images of uncoated biological tissues. So far, however, it has been used mainly in materials science applications. Here, we took advantage of helium ion microscopy to explore the epithelium of the rat kidney with unsurpassed image quality and detail. In addition, we evaluated different tissue preparation methods for their ability to preserve tissue architecture.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 26, 2013

[Johns Hopkins University School of Med] Researchers at The Johns Hopkins University and Yale University have discovered that a specialized receptor, normally found in the nose, is also in blood vessels throughout the body, sensing small molecules created by microbes that line mammalian intestines, and responding to these molecules by increasing blood pressure. The finding suggests that gut bacteria are an integral part of the body’s complex system for maintaining a stable blood pressure.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 08, 2013

[Harvard] Bladder urothelium senses and communicates information about bladder fullness. However, the mechanoreceptors that respond to tissue stretch are poorly defined. Integrins are mechanotransducers in other tissues. Therefore, we eliminated β1-integrin selectively in urothelium of mice using Cre-LoxP targeted gene deletion.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 30, 2013

[Washington University in St. Louis] A study of young twins in Malawi, in sub-Saharan Africa, finds that bacteria living in the intestine are an underlying cause of a form of severe acute childhood malnutrition.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 17, 2013

[UCSF] The risk of kidney failure is greater for people with chronic kidney disease who also have atrial fibrillation, one of the most common forms of irregular heart rhythm in adults, according to a new study by researchers at UCSF and the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 10, 2013

[University of Melbourne and Case Western Reserve University] Insulin receptor signalling has a central role in mammalian biology, regulating cellular metabolism, growth, division, differentiation and survival. Insulin resistance contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the onset of Alzheimer's disease; aberrant signalling occurs in diverse cancers, exacerbated by cross-talk with the homologous type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R).

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 07, 2013

[University of Pennsylvania] For fifty years, one of the few classes of therapeutics effective in reducing the overactive glucose production associated with diabetes has been the biguanides, which includes metformin, the most frequently prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes. The inability of insulin to keep liver glucose output in check is a major factor in the high blood sugar of type 2 diabetes and other diseases of insulin resistance.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 19, 2012

[Case Western Reserve University] The objective of our study was to determine the effects of 2 antihypertensive drug dose schedules (PM dose and add-on dose) on nocturnal blood pressure (BP) in comparison with usual therapy (AM dose) in blacks with hypertensive chronic kidney disease and controlled office BP.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 08, 2012

[University of Michigan] Murine models are valuable instruments in defining the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but they only partially recapitulate disease manifestations of human DN, limiting their utility. To define the molecular similarities and differences between human and murine DN, we performed a cross-species comparison of glomerular transcriptional networks.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 01, 2012

[UCLA] The deficiency of hepcidin, the hormone that controls iron absorption and its tissue distribution, is the cause of iron overload in nearly all forms of hereditary hemochromatosis and in untransfused iron-loading anemias. In a recent study, we reported the development of minihepcidins, small drug-like hepcidin agonists.

NIDDK Grantee News

Oct 22, 2012

[UC San Diego] Longer term comparative efficacy information regarding transobturator and retropubic mid urethral slings is needed. We report 24-month continence rates, complications and symptom outcomes from a randomized equivalence trial.

NIDDK Grantee News

Oct 12, 2012

[Albert Einstein College of Medicine] Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are known to exist in a few regions of the brain; however, the entity and physiological/disease relevance of adult hypothalamic NSCs (htNSCs) remain unclear. This work shows that adult htNSCs are multipotent and predominantly present in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult mice.

NIDDK Grantee News

Oct 01, 2012

[University of Utah] Iron overload is associated with increased diabetes risk. We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic patients.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 27, 2011

[Nationwide Children's Hospital] Although the urinary tract is constantly challenged by microbial invasion, it remains free from colonization. Although little is known about how the urinary tract maintains sterility, the presence of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the urine suggests that they may play a role in its protection from infection.