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Sep 9, 2014
Eating habits, body fat related to differences in brain chemistry
People who are obese may be more susceptible to environmental food cues than their lean counterparts due to differences in brain chemistry that make eating more habitual and less rewarding, according to a National Institutes of Health study published in Molecular Psychiatry.
Jul 8, 2014
NIH study finds extreme obesity may shorten life expectancy up to 14 years
Adults with extreme obesity have increased risks of dying at a young age from cancer and many other causes including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney and liver diseases, according to results of an analysis of data pooled from 20 large studies of people from three countries. The study, led by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, found that people with class III (or extreme) obesity had a dramatic reduction in life expectancy compared with people of normal weight. The findings appeared July 8, 2014, in PLOS Medicine.
Jul 3, 2014
Acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease each a risk of the other
Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are closely intertwined, with each disease a risk factor for developing the other and sharing other risk factors in common, as well as sharing causes for the diseases to get worse, and outcomes, suggests a comprehensive analysis by scientists at the National Institutes of Health and George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, D.C. Findings were published July 3 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Jul 2, 2014
Gene type confers 26 percent chance of early celiac sign by age 5
More than one quarter of children with two copies of a high-risk variant in a specific group of genes develop an early sign of celiac disease called celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) by age 5. The findings are from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in Youth consortium, or TEDDY . The National Institutes of Health-funded study, published July 2 in the New England Journal of Medicine , also found that participants in Sweden had higher rates of celiac disease than participants in the United States, Finland and Germany, even with the same genetic risks.
Jul 1, 2014
Adults stop anti-rejection drugs after partial stem-cell transplant reverses sickle cell disease
Half of patients in a trial have safely stopped immunosuppressant medication following a modified blood stem-cell transplant for severe sickle cell disease, according to a study in the July 1 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association. The trial was conducted at the National Institutes of Health’s Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, by researchers from NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Jun 30, 2014
NIH-funded researchers extend liver preservation for transplantation
Researchers have developed a new supercooling technique to increase the amount of time human organs could remain viable outside the body. This study was conducted in rats, and if it succeeds in humans, it would enable a world-wide allocation of donor organs, saving more lives.
Jun 15, 2014
Bionic pancreas outperforms insulin pump in adults, youth
People with type 1 diabetes who used a bionic pancreas instead of manually monitoring glucose using fingerstick tests and delivering insulin using a pump were more likely to have blood glucose levels consistently within the normal range, with fewer dangerous lows or highs. The full report of the findings, funded by the National Institutes of Health, can be found online June 15 in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Jun 10, 2014
More than 29 million Americans have diabetes; 1 in 4 doesn’t know
More than 29 million people in the United States have diabetes, up from the previous estimate of 26 million in 2010, according to a report released today by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. One in four people with diabetes doesn’t know he or she has it.
May 4, 2014
Drug pair cuts children's urinary infections up to 80 percent
Long-term use of a drug combination reduces the risk of recurrent urinary tract infection by up to 80 percent in children with the urinary condition vesicoureteral compared to placebo, according to research funded by the National Institutes of Health. Results were published online May 4 in theNew England Journal of Medicine External Web Site Policy to coincide with presentation at the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia.
May 3, 2014
Steroids after surgery do not help infants with rare liver disease
Infants with biliary atresia — a rare liver disease — did not benefit from corticosteroid treatment after bile duct surgery and could face more harm, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health. Results were published online May 3 in the Journal of the American Medical Association to coincide with the Pediatric Academic Societies annual meeting.
Mar 13, 2014
NIH urges older Americans to protect their kidneys
In recognition of World Kidney Day 2014 on March 13, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA) at the National Institutes of Health remind older Americans about the importance of protecting their kidneys and urge them to better understand the decline of kidney function as people age.
Dec 22, 2013
Analysis: Dietary supplements increasingly linked to liver injuries
In a 1,300-word article on its front page, the New York Times (12/22, A1, O'Connor, Subscription Publication) reported that an analysis by the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network, which was established by the National Institutes of Health, indicated that "dietary supplements account for nearly 20 percent of drug-related liver injuries that turn up in hospitals, up from 7 percent a decade ago." The findings "included only the most severe cases of liver damage referred to a representative group of hospitals around the country, and the investigators said they were undercounting the actual number of cases." Some of these patients ultimately need a liver transplant or will die due to liver failure. The article discusses the loosely regulated supplement industry in the US.
Nov 21, 2013
Growth more stunted in lower-income youth with kidney disease
Even with more prescriptions for growth hormone, children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease were less likely to grow to normal height ranges if they came from lower-income families, according to research funded by the National Institutes of Health. Results from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) Study are published in the December issue of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases and online today at http://www.ajkd.org.
Nov 14, 2013
NIH statement: Family support key to diabetes prevention, management
Diabetes does not strike a person alone. It strikes families and communities. It strikes our nation and the world. During today’s World Diabetes Day and National Diabetes Month this November, we at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, renew our efforts to prevent, manage and one day cure diabetes. As well, we encourage families to take steps to improve their health and work together to fight diabetes and its serious and sometimes fatal consequences.
Nov 12, 2013
NIH: Gene hastens kidney disease progression in African-Americans
A gene variant common in African-Americans predicts that people with that gene who also have chronic kidney disease (CKD) are twice as likely to progress to kidney failure as African-Americans without the high-risk gene and white people with CKD. People with the high-risk gene also tend to lose kidney function at twice the rate of those without the gene, according to the research, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
Nov 4, 2013
Study shows adults had significant weight loss three years after bariatric surgery
National Institutes of Health-funded researchers found that adults had significant weight loss three years after bariatric surgery, with the majority losing the most weight during the first year. A separate study in teens found few incidences of complications in the first 30 days after bariatric surgery. These studies are part of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) and Teen-LABS. More than one-third of U.S. adults are obese, defined as having a body mass index or BMI of 30 or higher, and almost 17 percent of youth are also obese. Severe obesity is a BMI of 35 or more in adults and teens. BMI measures weight in relation to height.
Oct 21, 2013
Large study to examine if vitamin D prevents diabetes
Researchers have begun the first definitive, large-scale clinical trial to investigate if a vitamin D supplement helps prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in adults who have pre-diabetes andwho are at high risk for developing type 2. Funded by the NIH, the study is taking place at about 20 study sites across the United States.
Oct 20, 2013
Features news and information on activities, materials, and publications of the National Kidney Disease Education Program and other kidney groups.
Sep 9, 2013
Media Advisory: NIH grants expand search for role of microbes in health and disease in adults, infants
People are host to trillions of microbes living on their skin and in the gut, vagina, mouth, nose, lungs, and penis. These microbes live as communities in and on the human body and are known as the human microbiome. For the most part, we peacefully co-exist with these microbes. But sometimes some of these microorganisms such as, bacteria, can trigger responses that may cause people to develop a disease. To better understand how and why alteration of the normal microbiome at various body sites promotes diseases, the National Institutes of Health will fund three innovative research projects for the next 3 years.
Aug 1, 2013
Removing a protein enhances defense against bacteria in CGD mice
Deletion of a protein in white blood cells improves their ability to fight the bacteria staphylococcus aureus and possibly other infections in mice with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), according to a NIH study. CGD, a genetic disorder also found in people, is marked by recurrent, life-threatening infections. The study’s findings appear online in The Journal of Clinical Investigation.
Jul 29, 2013
NIH expands study to better understand kidney disease progression
Researchers from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study are embarking on another five years of work to identify risk factors for progression of early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), better understand the importance of reduced kidney function in older persons, and learn what role CKD may play in other illnesses that require hospitalization. CRIC is supported by the National Institutes of Health.
Jun 3, 2013
NIH begins recruitment for long-term study of diabetes drug efficacy
The NIH is looking for volunteers to take part in a study to compare the long-term benefits and risks of four widely used diabetes drugs in combination with metformin, the most common first-line medication for treating type 2 diabetes. Beginning recruitment in June, the project is called the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness (GRADE) Study.
May 22, 2013
NIH funds studies to improve type 2 and prediabetes treatment
The NIH is looking for volunteers to take part in one of three clinical trials to improve and preserve the production of insulin in people with pre-diabetes or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The project is called the Restoring Insulin Secretion study (RISE).
May 7, 2013
Type 1 diabetes network expands reach with online sign-up, nationwide testing
People with a family history of type 1 diabetes can now conveniently participate in free screening to help find ways to delay or prevent the disease, even if they live far from a study site. This alternative to site-based initial screening comes as modern technology enables more secure online registration for medical research.
Mar 13, 2013
NIH highlights lifelong impact of acute kidney injury
In observance of World Kidney Day on March 14, the NIH is raising awareness of the long term effects of acute kidney injury (AKI) — a sudden loss of kidney function. Research funded by the NIH’s NIDDK suggests survivors of AKI have a lifelong increased risk for developing permanent kidney damage, resulting in decreased kidney function.
Nov 1, 2012
Researchers discover 71 new human genes associated with bowel diseases
Researchers have found 71 new human genes associated with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, two chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) that affect the small and large (colon) intestines of nearly 2.5 million people worldwide. This study brings the total number of known genes associated with IBD to 163.
Oct 12, 2012
NIH launches free database of drugs associated with liver injury
A free source of evidence-based information for health care professionals and for researchers studying liver injury associated with prescription and over-the-counter drugs, herbals, and dietary supplements is now available from the NIH. Researchers and health care professionals can use the LiverTox database to identify basic and clinical research questions to be answered and to chart optimal ways to diagnose and control drug-induced liver injury.
Jul 5, 2012
NIH-funded study finds more precise way to estimate kidney function
Measuring creatinine and cystatin C — two markers for chronic kidney disease (CKD) — more precisely estimates kidney function than either marker alone, according to a study funded by the NIH. Results appear in the July 5 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
May 2, 2012
Bladder tests before urinary incontinence surgery in women may be unnecessary
An invasive and costly test commonly done in women before surgery for stress urinary incontinence may not be necessary, according to a study funded by the NIH. The study compared results after both a pre-operative check-up in a doctor's office and bladder function tests to results after only the office check-up. Women who had only the office check-up had equally successful outcomes after surgery.
Apr 30, 2012
NIH research featured in HBO documentary series on obesity
The Weight of the Nation documentary series and public awareness campaign by the cable network HBO, launching this week, features NIH research showing how obesity affects the country's health and how interventions can turn the tide against obesity and its complications.
Apr 29, 2012
Two drugs better than one to treat youth with type 2 diabetes
A combination of two diabetes drugs, metformin and rosiglitazone, was more effective in treating youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes than metformin alone, a study funded by the NIH has found. Adding an intensive lifestyle intervention to metformin provided no more benefit than metformin therapy alone.
Mar 28, 2012
Weight loss and increased fitness slow decline of mobility in adults
Weight loss and increased physical fitness nearly halved the risk of losing mobility in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, according to4 year results from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial funded by the NIH. The results are published in the March 29, 2012, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Mar 8, 2012
NIH encourages reducing disparities in kidney transplantation
In recognition of World Kidney Day on March 8, the NIH is promoting efforts to reduce disparities in organ transplantation. This is particularly important among African-Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians, all of whom are disproportionately affected by kidney failure — yet are less likely to receive organ transplants.
Feb 6, 2012
New website: NIH Clinical Research Trials and You
The National Institutes of Health has created a new website, NIH Clinical Research Trials and You, to help people learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate. From the first cure of a solid tumor with chemotherapy to the use of nitroglycerin in response to heart attacks, clinical research trials — or research studies involving people — have played a vital role in improving health and quality of life for people around the globe.
Jan 11, 2012
NIH study to test treatment for fatty liver disease in children
With the launch of a new clinical trial supported by the National Institutes of Health, researchers are working to determine whether treating children diagnosed with the most severe form of fatty liver disease with a drug called cysteamine will help improve the liver.