U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Liver Diseases Branch

T. Jake Liang, M.D., Chief

​Research Images

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TitleDescriptionImage
Color image depicting the process of iron homeostasis in yeastThis image depicts iron homeostasis in yeast. Proteins expressed as part of the Aft1 and 2 regulon are labeled in black text. The low affinity iron transporters Smf1 and Fet4 are also shown. Genes that are downregulated in iron deficiency are indicated in gray text.Enlarge
Color model depicting PCBP1 delivering iron to ferritinThis image depicts a model of PCBP1 delivering iron to ferritin. PCBP1 binds 3 Fe(II) ions and binds to ferritin, delivering the iron for mineralization of the ferritin core.Enlarge
Color image depicting PCBP iron chaperones in mammalian cellsThis image depicts circulating iron binds to transferrin (Tf), which binds to transferrin receptor (TfR) on the cell surface. Endocytosis internalizes ferric Tf/TfR complex and transferrin releases iron reduced to ferrous form. DMT1 transports ferrous iron to the cytosol. PCBP iron chaperones deliver it to cytosolic iron enzymes. Iron also transfers to mitochondria.Enlarge
Heme homeostasis in the eukaryotic cell is a balance of synthesis, distribution, and degradation.This is a simplified scheme of heme homeostasis in the eukaryotic cell. The final step of heme biosynthesis, the ferrochelatase (FECH) reaction, takes place in the mitochondria. Newly synthesized heme is used for assembly of cytochomes (CytC) and other heme proteins located in the cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), lysosomes, and nucleus. The degradation of heme to the iron, biliverdin (BV), and carbon monoxide is catalyzed by heme oxygenase associated with the ER. Heme uptake and heme export are mediated by the function of the plasma membrane heme transporters. Question marks signal unexplored pathways of intracellular heme transfer.Enlarge
Yeast heme oxygenase Hmx1 regulates heme homeostasisThis is an indirect Immunofluorescence image of Hmx1 in a yeast cell. Hmx1 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, a ring-like structure around the nucleus and periphery of the cell. Hmx1-HA was detected with (a) an anti-HA antibody, (b) a nucleus stained with DAPI, and (c) a merged image.Enlarge
Yeast as a tool to study heme transporters from other species.A yeast strain deficient in heme synthesis (hem1) can only grow when media are supplemented with heme precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), or a high concentration of heme. Expression of the heme transporter HRG4 from the worm C.elegans allows yeast to grow at low heme concentration.Enlarge
3-D structure of HCVThe three-dimensional structure of HCV is visualized and simulated by using electron cryomicroscopy of recombinant HCV-like viral particles.Enlarge
iPSC-derived human hepatocytesHuman hepatocytes, generated from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a patient, produce and exhibit hepatocyte-specific proteins (albumin) and functions (lipid and glycogen storage, organic anion transport). This regenerative medicine technology can be a valuable strategy for cell-based therapy of liver diseases.Enlarge
Induction of steatosis by HCVHCV infection of human hepatocyte-derived cells induces a lipogenic program that results in massive accumulation of lipid droplets (green and yellow structures). This is known as steatosis and is essential for HCV propagation.Enlarge
Gross photograph and magnification of a resected specimen showing NRHEnlarge
Graphic representation of platelet slopes from representative patients in a CGD cohort who died or survived to end of followup in a cohort of CGD patientsThe image depicts platelet slopes from patients in a CGD cohort who (a) died and (b) survived to end of follow-up. Hepatic involvement and portal hypertension predict mortality in chronic granulomatous disease. Feld JJ, Hussain N, Wright EC, Kleiner DE, Hoofnagle JH, Ahlawat S, Anderson V, Hilligoss D, Gallin JI, Liang TJ, Malech HL, Holland SM, Heller T. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jun;134(7):1917-26Enlarge
Graph: Survival function estimate with cohort of CGD patients for each of the determinants of mortality based on the Cox proportional hazards modelEstimate of the survival function in a cohort of CGD patients for each of the determinants of mortality based on the Cox proportional hazards model. The curves compare the survival estimates for patients with and without a) declining platelet slope b) ALP elevations and c) a history of liver abscess. Each curve is adjusted for all factors in the multivariable Cox model. d) This figure compares the survival function for patients with all three determinants of mortality with that for patients with none of these factors. Hepatic involvement and portal hypertension predict mortality in chronic granulomatous disease. Feld JJ, Hussain N, Wright EC, Kleiner DE, Hoofnagle JH, Ahlawat S, Anderson V, Hilligoss D, Gallin JI, Liang TJ, Malech HL, Holland SM, Heller T. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jun;134(7):1917-26.Enlarge
Venopathy as a potential cause of nodular regenerative hyperplasiaVenopathy as a potential cause of nodular regenerative hyperplasia. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia: not all nodules are created equal. Reshamwala PA, Kleiner DE, Heller T. Hepatology. 2006 Jul;44(1):7-14 Enlarge