The Clinical Research in Type 2 Diabetes program supports human studies across the lifespan aimed at understanding, preventing and treating type 2 diabetes (T2D). This program includes clinical trials that test pharmacologic, behavioral, surgical or practice-level approaches to the treatment and/or prevention of T2D, including promoting the preservation of beta cell function. Studies may also advance the development of new surrogate markers for use in clinical trials. Studies can be designed to understand the pathophysiology of T2D, including the role of gestational diabetes and metabolic imprinting on the development of T2D, as well as factors influencing the response to treatment. The program also encompasses epidemiologic studies that improve our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of T2D, and the development of diagnostic criteria to distinguish type 1 and type 2 diabetes, especially in the pediatric population. The program also supports research to test approaches to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence and/or clinical outcomes of T2D.