The Diabetes and Endocrine Disease Translational Research program promotes studies that develop practical applications from basic science and lead to improvements in human health. The program encourages efforts to translate proteomic, metabolomic, genomic, and epigenetic findings into clinical practice, to develop supporting technologies, and to translate discoveries into practical approaches to personalized medicine. Of scientific interest are studies that use genetic analyses to identify genes and epigenetic factors that influence variable responses to medications and the functional consequences of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic responses to therapeutic agents. Systems biology approaches determine how higher-level properties of complex biological systems arise from the interactions among their parts—with an emphasis on studies that integrate data sets from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics to develop predictive models. The program fosters interdisciplinary research aimed at a clearer understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological processes relevant to therapeutic development in diabetes and endocrine and metabolic disorders. The program also encourages the development of high-throughput assays that researchers could use to screen molecular libraries for novel therapeutic agents and to discover new mechanisms of action for therapeutics.