U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Astrid Haase
 

 Contact Info

 
Tel: 301-451-5125
Email: astrid.haase@nih.gov
 

 Select Experience

 
  • Post Doctoral FellowCold Spring Harbor Laboratory2007-2015
  • Graduate StudentFriedrich Miescher Insitute for Biomedical Research2002-2007
  • Ph.D.University of Basel, Switzerland2007
  • M.D.University of Vienna, Austria2002
 

 Related Links

 

Astrid D. Haase, M.D., Ph.D.

Acting Section Chief, RNA Biology SectionLaboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology
Specialties
  • Chromosome Biology/Epigenetics
  • Developmental Biology
  • Molecular Biology/Biochemistry
Research Summary/In Plain Language

Research Summary

Research Goal

We aim to understand how small non-coding RNAs guard genomic integrity.

Current Research

Small non-coding RNAs play crucial roles in development and disease. Globally referred to as RNA interference (RNAi), conserved small RNA pathways operate from yeast to human. They regulate gene expression, defend against viruses and control repetitive genetic elements. Additionally, their elegant mechanisms are widely harnessed for biotechnology and targeted therapy.

Our group studies a particular class of small RNAs that represses transposon activity in the germline. The ability of transposons to mobilize and insert into new genomic locations threatens genomic integrity and must be suppressed. Integrity of genomic information is particularly important in germ cells that determine the genetic make-up of a species. Therefore germ cells employ specialized small RNA pathways -PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs)- to silence transposons and thus ensure genomic stability and fertility in animals. Mature piRNAs guide their associated PIWI complexes to silence transposons at transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels, directing chromatin modifications or promoting RNA decay.

We aim to elucidate molecular mechanisms of piRNA silencing through an integrated approach combining Drosophila genetics, biochemistry and next-generation sequencing. While recent advances have provided a framework for what resembles a small RNA-based immune system, further studies are required to elucidate the many molecular innovations that enable discrimination of transposons from host genes and efficient selective silencing of genetic mobility. Successfully meeting our goals will bolster our understanding of fundamental mechanisms that survey and guard genomic integrity.

Applying our Research

Genome integrity is essential for cellular and organismal fitness and is lost in various diseases including cancer. Insights into the molecular mechanisms of small RNA-guided genome defense will further our understanding of genome surveillance, and will inspire novel biomedical approaches to combat genomic instability in diseases. Additionally, mechanisms of RNA interference have been successfully harnessed for biotechnology and targeted therapy over the past years, and novel insights into piRNA pathways will enlarge our molecular repertoire.

Need for Further Study

Small regulatory RNAs have been discovered in all branches of life but we are just beginning to understand their diverse functions in gene regulation and genome surveillance. Further studies are required to characterize these regulatory pathways and to elucidate their molecular mechanisms.