My lab studies how proteins alter their shapes. Long polypeptide chains make up proteins. We study how these chains fold to make a complex protein structure. We also examine how structural changes relate to the protein’s function. Some studies investigate the basic physical principles involved in the folding process. We also detect and measure changes in heme proteins. These proteins play a key role in binding oxygen to red blood cells. We identified the motions of atoms involved in protein changes. My lab has used time-resolved x-ray crystallography to visualize the motions of atoms directly.