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Diabetes Disease Organizations

Many organizations provide support to patients and medical professionals. View the full list of Diabetes Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB).

Continuous Glucose Monitoring

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What is glucose monitoring?

Glucose monitoring helps people with diabetes manage the disease and avoid its associated problems. A person can use the results of glucose monitoring to make decisions about food, physical activity, and medications. The most common way to check glucose levels involves pricking a fingertip with an automatic lancing device to obtain a blood sample and then using a glucose meter to measure the blood sample's glucose level.

Drawing of a glucose meter and a person using a lancing device to obtain a blood sample from a fingertip for testing with the meter.
People with diabetes typically use a lancing device to obtain a blood sample and a glucose meter to measure the glucose level in the sample.

Many types of glucose meters are available, and all are accurate and reliable if used properly. See the American Diabetes Associations annual resource guide at www.diabetes.org for more information. Some meters use a blood sample from a less sensitive area than the fingertip, such as the upper arm, forearm, or thigh.

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What is continuous glucose monitoring?

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems use a tiny sensor inserted under the skin to check glucose levels in tissue fluid. The sensor stays in place for several days to a week and then must be replaced. A transmitter sends information about glucose levels via radio waves from the sensor to a pagerlike wireless monitor. The user must check blood samples with a glucose meter to program the devices. Because currently approved CGM devices are not as accurate and reliable as standard blood glucose meters, users should confirm glucose levels with a meter before making a change in treatment.

Drawing of three people, each using a different type of wireless continuous glucose monitoring system. A man on the left wears a glucose sensor/transmitter on his right arm and holds a monitor in his left hand. In the middle drawing, a woman's torso is shown with a sensor/transmitter attached to her abdomen and a monitor attached to her clothing. A woman on the right wears a third type of monitor outside her clothing; the sensor/transmitter is worn beneath her clothing so it is not pictured.
CGM systems provide glucose measurements as often as once per minute. The measurements are transmitted to a wireless monitor.

CGM systems are more expensive than conventional glucose monitoring, but they may enable better glucose control. CGM devices produced by Abbott, DexCom, and Medtronic have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are available by prescription. These devices provide real-time measurements of glucose levels, with glucose levels displayed at 5-minute or 1-minute intervals. Users can set alarms to alert them when glucose levels are too low or too high. Special software is available to download data from the devices to a computer for tracking and analysis of patterns and trends, and the systems can display trend graphs on the monitor screen.

Additional CGM devices are being developed and tested. To learn more about such monitors and new products after approval, call the FDA at 1-888-INFO-FDA(463-6332) or at www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/default.htm.

Drawing of a woman sitting at a desk and looking at a chart of glucose levels on a computer screen.
People who use CGM systems can download data to a computer to see patterns and trends in their glucose levels.

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What are the prospects for an artificial pancreas?

To overcome the limitations of current insulin therapy, researchers have long sought to link glucose monitoring and insulin delivery by developing an artificial pancreas. An artificial pancreas is a system that will mimic, as closely as possible, the way a healthy pancreas detects changes in blood glucose levels and responds automatically to secrete appropriate amounts of insulin. Although not a cure, an artificial pancreas has the potential to significantly improve diabetes care and management and to reduce the burden of monitoring and managing blood glucose.

An artificial pancreas based on mechanical devices requires at least three components:

  • a CGM system
  • an insulin delivery system
  • a computer program that "closes the loop" by adjusting insulin delivery based on changes in glucose levels

With recent technological advances, the first steps have been taken toward closing the loop. The first pairing of a CGM system with an insulin pump—the MiniMed Paradigm REAL-Time System—is not an artificial pancreas, but it does represent the first step in joining glucose monitoring and insulin delivery systems using the most advanced technology available.

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Points to Remember

  • Glucose monitoring helps people with diabetes manage the disease and avoid its associated problems.
  • The most common way to check glucose levels involves pricking a fingertip to obtain a blood sample and using a glucose meter to measure the glucose level in the sample.
  • Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems use a tiny sensor inserted under the skin to check glucose levels in tissue fluid. A transmitter sends glucose measurements to a wireless monitor.
  • An artificial pancreas based on mechanical devices will consist of a CGM system, an insulin delivery system, and a computer program to adjust insulin delivery based on changes in glucose levels.

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Clinical Trials

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and other components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct and support research into many diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical trials are right for you.

What clinical trials are open?
Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

This information may contain content about medications and, when taken as prescribed, the conditions they treat. When prepared, this content included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) or visit www.fda.gov. Consult your health care provider for more information.


The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.

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This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

The NIDDK would like to thank:
William V. Tamborlane, M.D., Yale University

This information is not copyrighted. The NIDDK encourages people to share this content freely.


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December 2008