Oct 27, 2016
NIH researchers unveil new wound-healing role for protein-folding gene in mice
National Institutes of Health researchers have identified a novel role for a gene known as heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), finding that it is critical in tissue regeneration and wound healing. The study found that topical treatment of an Hsp60-containing gel dramatically accelerates wound closure in a diabetic mouse model.
Oct 14, 2016
Weight loss leads to strong increase in appetite
Analysis of a trial that used the drug canagliflozin found that as people lost weight, their appetite increased proportionately, leading to consumption of more calories and weight loss plateau (leveling off). The findings provide the first measurement in people of how strongly appetite counters weight loss as part of the body’s feedback control system regulating weight. Results are currently available on BioRxiv (link is external) and will publish in Obesity during Obesity Week 2016.
Oct 11, 2016
NIH task force formed to develop first nutrition strategic plan
The National Institutes of Health Nutrition Research Task Force (NRTF) was established to coordinate and accelerate progress in nutrition research across the NIH and guide the development of the first NIH-wide strategic plan for nutrition research for the next 10 years.
NIDDK's Health Information News
NIDDK's Health Information News is an e-newsletter that provides subscribers with information from all of the NIDDK's health communications programs, including the National Diabetes Education Program; the National Kidney Disease Education Program; the Weight-control Information Network; the clearinghouses for diabetes, digestive diseases, and kidney and urologic diseases; and the information services for blood diseases and endocrine and metabolic diseases.
Aug 1, 2016
Autonomic Testing in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain.
[Medical College of Wisconsin; Case Western Reserve University] Researchers tested whether abnormal autonomic nervous system innervation of the bladder underlies IC (interstitial cystitis)/BPS (bladder pain syndrome) differently than other chronic pelvic pain. Some chronic pelvic pain types showed autonomic neuropathy and some show vagal withdrawal.
Jul 27, 2016
New medication shows promise against liver fibrosis in animal studies
A new drug developed by scientists at the National Institutes of Health limits the progression of liver fibrosis in mice, a hopeful advance against a condition for which there is no current treatment and that often leads to serious liver disease in people with chronic alcoholism and other common diseases.
Jul 11, 2016
Human islets contain four distinct subtypes of β cells.
[Oregon Health and Science University; University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine] Human pancreatic islets of Langerhans contain five distinct endocrine cell types, each producing a characteristic hormone. The dysfunction or loss of the insulin-producing β cells causes diabetes mellitus, a disease that harms millions. Until now, β cells were generally regarded as a single, homogenous cell population.
Jun 15, 2016
Antibiotics, birth mode, and diet shape microbiome maturation during early life.
[New York University Langone Medical Center] The intestinal “microbiota,” that is, the community of microbes inhabiting the human intestinal tract, undergoes many changes during the first 2 years of life. Bokulich et al. now show that this pattern of development is altered in children who are delivered by cesarean section, fed formula, or treated with antibiotics, compared to those babies who were born vaginally, breast-fed, or unexposed to antibiotics.
Jun 8, 2016
Acetate mediates a microbiome-brain-β-cell axis to promote metabolic syndrome.
[Yale University School of Medicine] Obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are associated with changes to the gut microbiota; however, the mechanism by which modifications to the gut microbiota might lead to these conditions is unknown. Here we show that increased production of acetate by an altered gut microbiota in rodents leads to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which, in turn, promotes increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, increased ghrelin secretion, hyperphagia, obesity and related sequelae.
Jun 7, 2016
Maternal diet quality in pregnancy and neonatal adiposity: the Healthy Start Study.
[Colorado School of Public Health; University of Colorado School of Medicine] Poor maternal diet in pregnancy can influence fetal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that poor maternal diet quality during pregnancy would increase neonatal adiposity (percent fat mass [%FM]) at birth by increasing the FM component of neonatal body composition.
Jun 7, 2016
Genetic Coding Variant in GPR65, alters Lysosomal ph and Links Lysosomal Dysfunction with Colitis Risk.
[The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard; Monash University] Although numerous polymorphisms have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), identifying the function of these genetic factors has proved challenging. Here we identified a role for nine genes in IBD susceptibility loci in antibacterial autophagy and characterized a role for one of these genes, GPR65, in maintaining lysosome function.
May 27, 2016
Gene-microbiota interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.
[California Institute of Technology] Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with risk variants in the human genome and dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, though unifying principles for these findings remain largely undescribed. The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis delivers immunomodulatory molecules to immune cells via secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs).
May 10, 2016
Generation of stem cell-derived β-cells from patients with type 1 diabetes.
[Washington University School of Medicine; Harvard University; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine] We recently reported the scalable in vitro production of functional stem cell-derived β-cells (SC-β cells). Here we extend this approach to generate the first SC-β cells from type 1 diabetic patients (T1D). β-cells are destroyed during T1D disease progression, making it difficult to extensively study them in the past.
May 2, 2016
Persistent metabolic adaptation 6 years after "The Biggest Loser" competition.
[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases] Researchers measured long-term changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition in participants of “The Biggest Loser” competition. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and RMR was determined by indirect calorimetry at baseline, at the end of the 30-week competition and 6 years later.
Apr 27, 2016
ZP2 peptide beads select human sperm in vitro, decoy mouse sperm in vivo, and provide reversible contraception.
[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain] The zona pellucida, a matrix that surrounds ovulated eggs, is the site of sperm recognition and binding, which precede sperm penetration and fertilization. Avella et al. identified a peptide from the zona pellucida called ZP2, which the authors attached to agarose beads to facilitate infertility treatment or, conversely, contraception.
Apr 21, 2016
Asprosin, a Fasting-Induced Glucogenic Protein Hormone.
[Baylor College of Medicine] Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is the C-terminal cleavage product of profibrillin, and we name it Asprosin.
Apr 18, 2016
Islet transplantation restores blood sugar awareness and control in type 1 diabetes
New clinical trial results show that transplantation of pancreatic islets — cell clusters that contain insulin-producing cells—prevents severe, potentially life-threatening drops in blood sugar in people with type 1 diabetes. Researchers found that the treatment was effective for people who experienced episodes of severe hypoglycemia — low blood sugar levels that can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness and death — despite receiving expert care.
Apr 1, 2016
First in human clinical trial of ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.
[University of Washington; Indiana University] Ultrasonic propulsion is a new technology using focused ultrasound energy applied transcutaneously to reposition kidney stones. We report what are to our knowledge the findings from the first human investigational trial of ultrasonic propulsion toward the applications of expelling small stones and dislodging large obstructing stones.
Mar 29, 2016
Children with Cushing syndrome may have higher suicide risk
Children with Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide as well as for depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions long after their disease has been successfully treated, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.
NIDDK Director’s Update
Features updates on NIH and NIDDK activities, events, NIDDK-specific plans, and trans-NIH issues.
Mar 18, 2016
The nutrient sensor OGT in PVN neurons regulates feeding.
[Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; National Institute on Drug Abuse] Overeating and obesity are rapidly becoming worldwide problems. Normally, mice do not overeat—they balance their caloric intake with their caloric needs. Lagerlöf et al. deleted an enzyme called O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) from a subset of neurons in the mouse hypothalamus (see the Perspective by Schwartz). After the loss of OGT, the animals began to overeat and rapidly gained weight.
Mar 10, 2016
Survival Benefit with Kidney Transplants from HLA-Incompatible Live Donors.
[Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine] This multicenter study validated single-center evidence that patients who received kidney transplants from HLA-incompatible live donors had a substantial survival benefit as compared with patients who did not undergo transplantation and those who waited for transplants from deceased donors.
Mar 10, 2016
This National Kidney Month, help your children adopt healthy habits
During National Kidney Month — and World Kidney Day — the National Institutes of Health encourages you to think about how to protect your children’s kidneys, for today and for a lifetime. While most children with kidney disease were born with urinary tract problems or inherited diseases that put them at risk, some develop kidney disease as they age due to growing problems of young people, such as type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.
Mar 7, 2016
A branched-chain amino acid metabolite drives vascular fatty acid transport and causes insulin resistance.
[University of Pennsylvania; Harvard Medical School] Epidemiological and experimental data implicate branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms that underlie this link remain unclear. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle stems from the excess accumulation of lipid species, a process that requires blood-borne lipids to initially traverse the blood vessel wall.