U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

News Archive

News Type

Date Range


Showing filtered results. Clear filters.

NIDDK Grantee News

Aug 1, 2016

[Medical College of Wisconsin; Case Western Reserve University] Researchers tested whether abnormal autonomic nervous system innervation of the bladder underlies IC (interstitial cystitis)/BPS (bladder pain syndrome) differently than other chronic pelvic pain. Some chronic pelvic pain types showed autonomic neuropathy and some show vagal withdrawal.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jul 11, 2016

[Oregon Health and Science University; University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine] Human pancreatic islets of Langerhans contain five distinct endocrine cell types, each producing a characteristic hormone. The dysfunction or loss of the insulin-producing β cells causes diabetes mellitus, a disease that harms millions. Until now, β cells were generally regarded as a single, homogenous cell population.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jun 15, 2016

[New York University Langone Medical Center] The intestinal “microbiota,” that is, the community of microbes inhabiting the human intestinal tract, undergoes many changes during the first 2 years of life. Bokulich et al. now show that this pattern of development is altered in children who are delivered by cesarean section, fed formula, or treated with antibiotics, compared to those babies who were born vaginally, breast-fed, or unexposed to antibiotics.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jun 8, 2016

[Yale University School of Medicine] Obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome are associated with changes to the gut microbiota; however, the mechanism by which modifications to the gut microbiota might lead to these conditions is unknown. Here we show that increased production of acetate by an altered gut microbiota in rodents leads to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which, in turn, promotes increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, increased ghrelin secretion, hyperphagia, obesity and related sequelae.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jun 7, 2016

[Colorado School of Public Health; University of Colorado School of Medicine] Poor maternal diet in pregnancy can influence fetal growth and development. We tested the hypothesis that poor maternal diet quality during pregnancy would increase neonatal adiposity (percent fat mass [%FM]) at birth by increasing the FM component of neonatal body composition.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jun 7, 2016

[The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard; Monash University] Although numerous polymorphisms have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), identifying the function of these genetic factors has proved challenging. Here we identified a role for nine genes in IBD susceptibility loci in antibacterial autophagy and characterized a role for one of these genes, GPR65, in maintaining lysosome function.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jun 7, 2016

[University of California San Diego] p62 is a ubiquitin-binding autophagy receptor and signaling protein that accumulates in premalignant liver diseases and most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Although p62 was proposed to participate in the formation of benign adenomas in autophagy-deficient livers, its role in HCC initiation was not explored.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jun 1, 2016

[Nationwide Children’s Hospital; University of New South Wales; Medical College of Wisconsin] Pediatric acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are poorly understood. Kumar et al examined a multinational cross-sectional study of children for risk factors, abdominal pain, and disease burden associated with ARP and CP in childhood.

NIDDK Grantee News

May 27, 2016

[California Institute of Technology] Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with risk variants in the human genome and dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, though unifying principles for these findings remain largely undescribed. The human commensal Bacteroides fragilis delivers immunomodulatory molecules to immune cells via secretion of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs).

NIDDK Grantee News

May 23, 2016

[Vanderbilt University Medical Center] Basement membranes are defining features of the cellular microenvironment; however, little is known regarding their assembly outside cells. We report that extracellular Cl− ions signal the assembly of collagen IV networks outside cells by triggering a conformational switch within collagen IV noncollagenous 1 (NC1) domains.

NIDDK Grantee News

May 10, 2016

[Washington University School of Medicine; Harvard University; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine] We recently reported the scalable in vitro production of functional stem cell-derived β-cells (SC-β cells). Here we extend this approach to generate the first SC-β cells from type 1 diabetic patients (T1D). β-cells are destroyed during T1D disease progression, making it difficult to extensively study them in the past.

NIDDK Grantee News

May 2, 2016

[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases] Researchers measured long-term changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition in participants of “The Biggest Loser” competition. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and RMR was determined by indirect calorimetry at baseline, at the end of the 30-week competition and 6 years later.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 28, 2016

[University of California San Francisco] Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain lifelong blood production and increase blood cell numbers in response to chronic and acute injury. However, the mechanism(s) by which inflammatory insults are communicated to HSCs and their consequences for HSC activity remain largely unknown.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 27, 2016

[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain] The zona pellucida, a matrix that surrounds ovulated eggs, is the site of sperm recognition and binding, which precede sperm penetration and fertilization. Avella et al. identified a peptide from the zona pellucida called ZP2, which the authors attached to agarose beads to facilitate infertility treatment or, conversely, contraception.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 21, 2016

[Baylor College of Medicine] Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is the C-terminal cleavage product of profibrillin, and we name it Asprosin.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 5, 2016

[University of Texas; Medical University of South Carolina] Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome of severe, rapid-onset hepatic dysfunction without prior advanced liver disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intensive care and liver transplantation provide support and rescue, respectively.

NIDDK Grantee News

Apr 1, 2016

[University of Washington; Indiana University] Ultrasonic propulsion is a new technology using focused ultrasound energy applied transcutaneously to reposition kidney stones. We report what are to our knowledge the findings from the first human investigational trial of ultrasonic propulsion toward the applications of expelling small stones and dislodging large obstructing stones.

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 18, 2016

[Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; National Institute on Drug Abuse] Overeating and obesity are rapidly becoming worldwide problems. Normally, mice do not overeat—they balance their caloric intake with their caloric needs. Lagerlöf et al. deleted an enzyme called O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) from a subset of neurons in the mouse hypothalamus (see the Perspective by Schwartz). After the loss of OGT, the animals began to overeat and rapidly gained weight.

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 10, 2016

[Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine] This multicenter study validated single-center evidence that patients who received kidney transplants from HLA-incompatible live donors had a substantial survival benefit as compared with patients who did not undergo transplantation and those who waited for transplants from deceased donors.

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 7, 2016

[University of Pennsylvania; Harvard Medical School] Epidemiological and experimental data implicate branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms that underlie this link remain unclear. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle stems from the excess accumulation of lipid species, a process that requires blood-borne lipids to initially traverse the blood vessel wall.

NIDDK Grantee News

Mar 1, 2016

[Harvard Medical School] The safety and efficacy of continuous, multiday, automated glycaemic management has not been tested in outpatient studies of preadolescent children with type 1 diabetes. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a bihormonal bionic pancreas versus conventional insulin pump therapy in this population of patients in an outpatient setting.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 25, 2016

[Washington University] Identifying interventions that more effectively promote healthy growth of children with undernutrition is a pressing global health goal. Analysis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) from 6-month-postpartum mothers in two Malawian birth cohorts revealed that sialylated HMOs are significantly less abundant in those with severely stunted infants.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 19, 2016

[Washington University] As we come to appreciate how our microbial communities (microbiota) assemble following birth, there is an opportunity to determine how this facet of our developmental biology relates to the healthy or impaired growth of infants and children. Childhood undernutrition is a devastating global health problem whose long-term sequelae, including stunting, neurodevelopmental abnormalities, and immune dysfunction, remain largely refractory to current therapeutic interventions.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 15, 2016

Nephron endowment is determined by the self-renewal and induction of a nephron progenitor pool established at the onset of kidney development. In the mouse, the related transcriptional regulators Six1 and Six2 play non-overlapping roles in nephron progenitors. Transient Six1 activity prefigures, and is essential for, active nephrogenesis.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 12, 2016

[University of Colorado] T cell–mediated destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas causes type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4 T cell responses play a central role in β cell destruction, but the identity of the epitopes recognized by pathogenic CD4 T cells remains unknown.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 9, 2016

[Baylor College of Medicine] To evaluate mini-dose glucagon in adults with type 1 diabetes using a stable, liquid, ready-to-use preparation. Research Design and Methods Twelve adults with type 1 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin pumps received subcutaneous doses of 75, 150, and 300 μg of nonaqueous glucagon.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 4, 2016

[Case-Western Reserve University; George Washington University; University of California San Diego] Early initiation of intensive diabetes therapy aimed at achieving near-normal glycemia reduces the early development of vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We now assess whether intensive therapy compared with conventional therapy during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) affected the incidence of cardiovascular disease over 30 years of follow-up.

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 1, 2016

[Johns Hopkins University; Yale University] Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the most commonly used drugs worldwide and have been linked to acute interstitial nephritis. Less is known about the association between PPI use and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

NIDDK Grantee News

Feb 1, 2016

[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases] Slowing the diabetes epidemic in Africa requires improved detection of prediabetes. A1C, a form of glycated hemoglobin A, is recommended for diagnosing prediabetes. The glycated proteins, fructosamine and glycated albumin (GA), are hemoglobin-independent alternatives to A1C, but their efficacy in Africans is unknown.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 29, 2016

[University of Iowa] Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 25, 2016

[Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Harvard University] The transplantation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells offers the potential for restoring glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Pancreas transplantation and the infusion of cadaveric islets are currently implemented clinically, but these approaches are limited by the adverse effects of immunosuppressive therapy over the lifetime of the recipient and the limited supply of donor tissue.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 25, 2016

[Massachusetts Institute of Technology] The foreign body response is an immune-mediated reaction that can lead to the failure of implanted medical devices and discomfort for the recipient. There is a critical need for biomaterials that overcome this key challenge in the development of medical devices. Here we use a combinatorial approach for covalent chemical modification to generate a large library of variants of one of the most widely used hydrogel biomaterials, alginate.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 21, 2016

[International Consortium of a large number of universities] Reduced glomerular filtration rate defines chronic kidney disease and is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), combining data across 133,413 individuals with replication in up to 42,166 individuals.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 15, 2016

[Columbia University; California Institute of Technology] Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA–linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 15, 2016

[Harvard Medical School] Genes encoding human β-type globin undergo a developmental switch from embryonic to fetal to adult-type expression. Mutations in the adult form cause inherited hemoglobinopathies or globin disorders, including sickle cell disease and thalassemia.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 14, 2016

[University of Cincinnati; University of Pittsburgh; Baylor College of Medicine; University of Buffalo; University of Alabama] Severe obesity affects 4.4 million children and adolescents in the United States, and few effective treatments are available. Particular concern has centered on health problems among severely obese adolescents and possible treatment with bariatric surgery.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 13, 2016

[Stanford University; Harvard University] The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including immune function and metabolism. The reduced diversity of the gut microbiota in Western populations compared to that in populations living traditional lifestyles presents the question of which factors have driven microbiota change during modernization.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 9, 2016

[University of Montreal] Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 8, 2016

[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases] Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamus play a key role in regulating food intake and body weight, by releasing three different orexigenic molecules: AgRP; GABA; and neuropeptide Y. AgRP neurons express various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with different coupling properties, including Gs-linked GPCRs.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 6, 2016

[University of Cambridge, UK] To evaluate feasibility, safety, and efficacy of day-and-night hybrid closed-loop insulin delivery in adolescents with type 1 diabetes under free-living conditions without remote monitoring or supervision.

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 4, 2016

[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases] Activation of brain melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4Rs) leads to reduced food intake, increased energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and reduced linear growth. MC4R effects on energy expenditure and glucose metabolism are primarily mediated by the G protein Gsα in brain regions outside of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN).

NIDDK Grantee News

Jan 1, 2016

[Harvard Medical School] Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells.

NIDDK Grantee News

Dec 29, 2015

[University of Iowa] Exercise remains the most effective way to promote physical and metabolic wellbeing, but molecular mechanisms underlying exercise tolerance and its plasticity are only partially understood. In this study we identify musclin—a peptide with high homology to natriuretic peptides (NP)—as an exercise-responsive myokine that acts to enhance exercise capacity in mice.

NIDDK Grantee News

Dec 17, 2015

[University of Southern California; University of California, Los Angeles] Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for developing functional gastrointestinal disorders, and has been proposed to be related to a central amplification of sensory input and resultant visceral hyperalgesia. We sought to characterize ELS-related changes in functional brain responses during acute noxious visceral stimulation.

NIDDK Grantee News

Dec 1, 2015

[University of Colorado; George Washington University; University of Oklahoma] To determine whether clinically accessible parameters early in the course of youth-onset type 2 diabetes predict likelihood of durable control on oral therapy. Research Design and Methods Today was a randomized clinical trial of adolescents with type 2 diabetes.

NIDDK Grantee News

Dec 1, 2015

[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Washington University in St. Louis] The Pima Indians of Arizona have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity. As part of our ongoing work to identify genetic risk factors for these diseases in this ethnic group, we have pursued both genome-wide and targeted gene studies in American Indians living in the Gila River Indian Community (Sacaton, AZ).

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 23, 2015

[National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Harvard Medical School] Obesity is associated with decreased activity in the prefrontal cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modifies cortical excitability and may facilitate improved control of eating.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 11, 2015

[Yale University] Kidney transplantation is often the most effective therapy for end-stage renal disease, but there are not enough donor organs to meet the rising demand. Tissue engineering of kidneys is a potential solution to this organ shortage. Achieving microvascular perfusion has been a major barrier to engineering tissues beyond thin muscularized sheets such as the bladder wall.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 3, 2015

A diurnal rhythm of eating-fasting promotes health, but the eating pattern of humans is rarely assessed. Using a mobile app, we monitored ingestion events in healthy adults with no shift-work for several days. Most subjects ate frequently and erratically throughout wakeful hours, and overnight fasting duration paralleled time in bed.

NIDDK Grantee News

Nov 3, 2015

[University of California, Los Angeles] A majority of the subjects with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show increased behavioral and brain responses to expected and delivered aversive visceral stimuli during controlled rectal balloon distension, and during palpation of the sigmoid colon. We aimed to determine if altered brain responses to cued and uncued pain expectation are also seen in the context of a noxious somatic pain stimulus applied to the same dermatome as the sigmoid colon.