U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology

Marvin C. Gershengorn, M.D., Chief

​Research Images

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PTIPPTIP associates with histone H3K4 methyltransferases MLL3/MLL4 and H3K27 demethylase UTXPTIPEnlarge
Ligand binding to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptorThe thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), autoantibodies (TSAbs), and small molecule drug-like ligands (SMLs) bind to the TSH receptor at different sites. TSH and TSAbs bind primarily to the large ectodomain, whereas SMLs bind to a pocket within the transmembrane domain. Ectodomain is in red while the Transmembrane domain’s individual helices are ribbons in different colors.Ligand binding to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptorEnlarge
Internalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptorsThyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors (TSHRs) are stimulated to internalize by TSH in a β-arrestin-2-mediated pathway. Internalization of TSHRs (Control cells) are internalized to a greater extent when β-arrestin-2 is co-expressed with TSHRs (β-arrestin-2). The punctate spots are clusters of internalized TSHRs.Internalization of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptorsEnlarge
Expression of thyroid hormone receptor ß in the anterior pituitary gland (left) and inner ear (right)Thyroid hormone receptor  regulates production of pituitary thyrotropin, which in turn regulates thyroid gland activity. TR is also required for the development of the cochlea (c) and the developmental onset of hearing. Picture by Iwan JonesExpression of thyroid hormone receptor ß in the anterior pituitary gland (left) and inner ear (right)Enlarge
The ossicles of the mouse middle earThe ossicles consist of three bones, the malleus, incus, and stapes (blue, immature cartilage; red, calcified bone). The ossicles in the middle ear relay the mechanical energy of sound from the outer ear to the inner ear. The development of the the ossicles is influenced by thyroid hormone. Picture by Emily CordasThe ossicles of the mouse middle earEnlarge
Cone photoreceptors in the retinaCones are the sensory cells that mediate color perception. In most mammals, cones express opsins for sensitivity to short (S, blue) or medium (M, green) wavelengths of light. Thyroid hormone receptor TR2 is essential for the differential expression of M and S opsins. Picture by Lily NgCone photoreceptors in the retinaEnlarge
Amacrine neurons in the mouse retinaAmacrine neurons integrate visual information as it is relayed form the retina to the optic nerve. The development of these neurons is critically dependent upon the Rorb orphan nuclear receptor gene. Picture by Hong LiuAmacrine neurons in the mouse retinaEnlarge
TSH receptor model with ligand binding sitesComposite 3-dimensional homology model of the TSH receptor (magenta) with the amino-terminal ectodomain above and transmembrane helical domain below illustrates distinct binding sites for TSH (gray) and a small molecule agonist (orange). A 140-amino acid sequence of unknown structure is represented by a dotted line.TSH receptor model with ligand binding sitesEnlarge