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Diagnostic Tests

Physicians use a variety of procedures and tests to diagnose diabetes, digestive, kidney, and other diseases and conditions. Information about many of these tests is available below.

  • Colonoscopy

    A procedure that uses a long, flexible, narrow tube with a light and tiny camera on one end to look inside your rectum and entire colon. Colonoscopy can show irritated and swollen tissue, ulcers, and polyps.

  • ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography)

    Describes the purpose of the test, how patients can prepare for it, and what patients can expect during and after the procedure.

  • Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Describes the purpose of the test, how patients can prepare for it, and what patients can expect during and after the procedure. This publication is also available in Spanish.

  • Lower GI Series

    Provides general information about the lower gastrointestinal (GI) x-ray series. Describes the purpose of the test and what patients can expect before, during, and after the procedure. This publication is also available in Spanish.

  • Testing for Celiac Disease (For Health Care Providers)

    Describes tests that identify serological and genetic markers associated with celiac disease. If tests indicate the possibility of celiac disease, a biopsy determines diagnosis.

  • Upper GI Endoscopy

    A procedure in which a doctor uses an instrument called an endoscope to see the lining of your upper GI tract. Doctors use upper GI endoscopy to find, and sometimes treat, problems in the upper GI tract.

  • Upper GI Series

    Upper gastronintestinal (GI) endoscopy is a procedure in which a doctor uses an instrument called an endoscope to see the lining of your upper GI tract. Doctors use upper GI endoscopy to find, and sometimes treat, problems in the upper GI tract.

  • Virtual Colonoscopy

    Provides information about virtual colonoscopy. Describes the purpose of the test, how patients can prepare for it, and what patients can expect during and after the procedure.

  • Thyroid Tests

    Describes the different tests used to evaluate thyroid function and diagnose thyroid disease. Includes typical thyroid test results seen in thyroid diseases.

  • Testing for Kidney Disease

    Testing is the only way to know how your kidneys are doing. It is especially important to get checked if you have the key risk factors: diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a family history of kidney failure.

  • Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR)

    Your urine albumin test result tells you if your kidneys are damaged. Learn about the urine albumin test and what the results mean.

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR))

    Your GFR test result tells you how well your kidneys are working. Learn about the GFR blood test and what the results mean.

  • Kidney Biopsy

    Describes the procedure and possible reasons for performing this diagnostic test. Outlines the preparations for and explains what patients can expect during and after the test.

  • Liver Biopsy

    Provides general information about liver biopsy. Describes the purpose of the test, how patients can prepare for it, and what patients can expect during and after the procedure.

  • Cystoscopy and Ureteroscopy

    Outlines possible reasons for cystoscopy and ureteroscopy and explains the preparations involved. Describes the procedures in detail, as well as what patients can expect afterward.

  • Imaging of the Urinary Tract

    Explains the range of imaging technologies used to evaluate the urinary tract, including ultrasound, conventional radiology, magnetic resonance imaging, and computerized tomography.

  • Medical Tests for Prostate Problems

    Provides general information about prostate and problems. Describes several tests, including digital rectal exam, PSA blood test, urinalysis, and others.

  • Urodynamic Testing

    Describes normal bladder function, as well as problems in the urinary system that may require urodynamic testing. Discusses different urodynamic procedures and why they are used.