Human Growth Hormone and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Resource List

Nonprofit Organizations Offering Support and Information

MAGIC (Major Aspects of Growth in Children) Foundation is a national, nonprofit organization that provides support and education about growth disorders in children and growth hormone deficiency in adults. Staff will help connect people who have similar interests or concerns.

The Human Growth Foundation (HGF) is a nonprofit organization concerned with children’s growth disorders and adult growth hormone deficiency. The HGF offers a brochure about adult growth hormone deficiency. The foundation also sponsors adult and pediatric Internet discussion forums to support the exchange of information about growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone replacement therapy. To subscribe, follow the instructions at

The Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) Foundation, Inc. was created in 1993 by two families who lost relatives to CJD and the neurologist who treated the patients. This nonprofit corporation seeks to promote awareness of CJD through research and education and to reach out to people who have lost loved ones to this illness. The CJD Foundation is on the web at

General Information

Health Alert: Adrenal Crisis Causes Death in Some People Who Were Treated with Human Growth Hormone

National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Summary)

National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for People Treated with Pituitary Human Growth Hormone (Comprehensive Report)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease. Fact sheet of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health (NIH)

NIH and Italian Scientists Develop Nasal Test for Human Prion Disease

What is a prion?—from Scientific American: Ask the Experts

Articles from Medical Journals

To conduct your own web search of the medical literature, see PubMed, a search engine of the National Library of Medicine’s (NLM) MEDLINE database. In PubMed, you can read abstracts or summaries of many articles. Another useful web resource is the NLM’s MedlinePlus, a directory of information resources that can help you research your health questions.

The articles listed below are found in medical libraries. If you do not have access to a medical library, consult your local public librarian. Many public libraries will help you obtain copies of journal articles.

Abrams JY, Schonberger LB, Belay ED, et al. Lower risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in pituitary growth hormone recipients initiating treatment after 1977. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2011;96:E1666–E1669. Abstract available at

Appleby BS, Lu M, Bizzi A, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from commercial cadaveric human growth hormone. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(4):682–684.

Bell J, Parker KL, Swinford RD, Hoffman AR, Maneatis T, Lippe B. Long-term safety of recombinant human growth hormone in children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2010;95:167–177.

Boyd A, Klug GMJA, Schonberger LB, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Australia: time to amend infection control measures for pituitary hormone recipients? Medical Journal of Australia. 2010;193:366–369.

Brown P, Brandel JP, Sato T, et al. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, final assessment. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(6):901–907.

Coulthart MB, Geschwind MD, Qureshi S, et al. A case cluster of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Brain. 2016;139(Pt 10):2609-2616.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in the UK. Twentieth annual report 2011. The National CJD Research & Surveillance Unit (NCJDRSU). (PDF, 1.47 MB)

Ergun-Longmire B, Mertens AC, Mitby P, et al. Growth hormone treatment and risk of second neoplasms in the childhood cancer survivor. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2006;91:3494–3498.

Heath CA, Cooper SA, Murray K, et al. Validation of diagnostic criteria for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Annals of Neurology. 2010;67(6):761–770.

Hervé D, Porché M, Cabrejo L, et al. Fatal Aβ cerebral amyloid angiopathy 4 decades after a dural graft at the age of 2 years. Acta Neuropathologica. 2018;135(5):801–803.

Honda H, Matsumoto M, Masahiro S, et al. Frequent detection of pituitary-derived PrPres in human prion diseases. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2019;78(10):922-929.

Hughson AG, Race B, Kraus A, et al. Inactivation of prions and amyloid seeds with hypochlorous acid. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12(9):e1005914.

Irwin DJ, Abrams JY, Schonberger LB, et al. Evaluation of potential infectivity of Alzheimer and Parkinson disease proteins in recipients of cadaver-derived human growth hormone. JAMA Neurology. 2013;70(4):462–468.

Jaunmuktane Z, Mead S, Ellis M, et al. Evidence for human transmission of amyloid-β pathology and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Nature. 2015;525(7568):247–250.

Jucker M, Walker LC. Propagation and spread of pathogenic protein assemblies in neurodegenerative diseases. Nature Neuroscience. 2018;21(10):1341–1349.

Lodi R, Parchi P, Tonon C, et al. Magnetic resonance diagnostic markers in clinically sporadic prion disease: a combined brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy study. Brain. 2009;132(10):2669–2679.

Matsui Y, Satoh K, Mutsukura K, et al. Development of an ultra-rapid diagnostic method based on heart-type fatty acid binding protein levels in the CSF of CJD patients. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 2010;30(7):991–999.

Orrú CD, Bongianni M, Tonoli G, et al. A test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using nasal brushings. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;371:519–529.

Orrú CD, Groveman BR, Hughson AG, et al. Rapid and sensitive RT-QuIC detection of human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using cerebrospinal fluid. MBio. 2015;6(1):e02451–14.

Orrú CD, Soldau K, Cordano C, et al. Prion seeds distribute throughout the eyes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients. mBio. 2018;9(6):e02095-18.

Orrú CD, Yuan J, Appleby BS, et al. Prion seeding activity and infectivity in skin samples from patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Science Translational Medicine. 2017;9(417).

Parchi P, Strammiello R, Notari S, et al. Incidence and spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease variants with mixed phenotype and co-occurrence of PrPSc types: an updated classification. Acta Neuropathologica. 2009;118(5):659–671.

Peckeu L, Brandel JP, Welaratne A, et. al. Factors influencing the incubation of an infectious form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;ciz692:

Prusiner SB, Woerman, AL, Mordes, DA, et al. Evidence for α-synuclein prions causing multiple system atrophy in humans with parkinsonism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015;112(38):E5308-5317.

Purro SA, Farrow MA, Linehan J, et. al. Transmission of amyloid- β protein pathology from cadaveric pituitary growth hormone. Nature. 2018;594;415-419

Quadrio I, Ugnon-Café S, Dupin M, et al. Rapid diagnosis of human prion disease using streptomycin with tonsil and brain tissues. Laboratory Investigation. 2009;89(4):406–413.

Raymond, RJ, Zhao, HT, Race, B, et. al. Antisense oligonucleotides extend survival of prion-infected mice. JCI Insight. 2019;4(16):e131175.

Ritchie DL, Adlard P, Peden AH, et al. Amyloid-β accumulation in the CNS in human growth hormone recipients in the UK. Acta Neuropathologica. 2017;134(2): 221–240.

Ritchie DL, Barria MA, Peden AH, et al. UK Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: investigating human prion transmission across genotypic barriers using human tissue-based and molecular approaches. Acta Neuropathologica. 2017;133(4):579–595.

Sanchez-Juan P, Cousens SN, Will RG, van Duijn CM. Source of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease outside United Kingdom. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13:1166–1169.

Tian HJ, Zhang JT, Lang SY, Wang XQ. MRI sequence findings in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2010;17(11):1378–1380.

Vranac T, Bresjanac M. Metabolic aspects of prion diseases: an overview. Current Drug Targets. 2010;11(10):1207–1217.

Wilton P, Mattsson AF, Darendeliler F. Growth hormone treatment in children is not associated with an increase in the incidence of cancer: experience from KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). Journal of Pediatrics. 2010;157(2):265–270.

Zerr K, Kallenberg K, Summers DM, et al. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Brain. 2009;132(10):2659–2668.

Zou S, Fang CT, Schonberger LB. Transfusion transmission of human prion diseases. Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2008;22:58–69.

March 2020

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