Impacts of Sleep and Circadian Disruption on Energy Balance and Diabetes
Mechanistic and molecular studies in animal models demonstrate that disruptions in circadian rhythms and/or the molecular components of central and peripheral clock proteins profoundly influence glucose and lipid metabolism as well as body adiposity. Epidemiological evidence in humans also suggests that sleep disruption is associated with increased body weight and impaired glucose tolerance. However, a number of scientific gaps remain. Currently, the individual mechanisms that mediate the differential effects on metabolism of the circadian clock, the sleep-wake cycle, and the timing of feeding have not been identified. Furthermore, the translation of these findings has only been applied to humans in limited approaches. To determine if and how modulation of sleep/circadian rhythms and timing of feeding can be used to attenuate and perhaps treat the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, it is essential to move the field forward and identify the mechanisms that link sleep and metabolism. In addition, it is important to determine which clinical populations would be most responsive to sleep modulation, and if chronotherapy could be applied to the treatment of obesity and diabetes. The goals of this workshop are to: 1) bring together experts in the field of circadian regulation, sleep, and glucose/lipid metabolism; 2) review the current state of knowledge in human and nonhuman models; and, with this background, 3) determine the appropriate methodologies and studies that need to be conducted to establish whether modulating sleep and circadian rhythms can effectively contribute to the treatment of obesity and diabetes.