Symptoms & Causes of Bladder Control Problems (Urinary Incontinence)
What are the symptoms of bladder control problems?
Signs and symptoms of urinary incontinence can include
- leaking urine during everyday activities, such as lifting, bending, coughing, or exercising
- feeling a sudden, strong urge to urinate right away
- leaking urine without any warning or urge
- being unable to reach a toilet in time
- wetting your bed during sleep
When should I see a health care professional?
See a health care professional if you have symptoms of a bladder problem, such as trouble urinating, a loss of bladder control, waking to use the bathroom, pelvic pain, or leaking urine.
Bladder problems can affect your quality of life and cause other health problems. Your doctor may be able to help you treat your UI by recommending a lifestyle change or a change in how much medicine you normally take.
See a health care professional if you
- can’t pass urine or empty your bladder
- urinate too often—8 or more bathroom visits a day—also called frequency
- see blood in the urine, also called hematuria
- have bladder infection symptoms, including painful urination
What causes bladder control problems in women?
- pregnancy and childbirth
- trauma or injury, such as sexual assault
- cystocele and pelvic organ prolapse
Weak pelvic floor muscles can make it hard for your bladder to keep urine in during stress incontinence. Stress incontinence occurs when some of your movements—coughing, sneezing, laughing, or physical activity—put pressure on your bladder and cause urine to leak. A weak pelvic floor can also cause fecal incontinence, or bowel control problems.
What causes bladder control problems in men?
Men sometimes develop UI along with prostate problems.
Men have a prostate gland that surrounds the opening of the bladder. The prostate gets bigger as a man ages. When the prostate gets too big but isn’t cancerous, a man has a condition called prostate enlargement, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Men with an enlarged prostate may have
- problems with starting to urinate
- a slow urine stream
- problems fully emptying the bladder
Men who have a history of prostate cancer may have short-term or long-term UI. The cancer can damage or block the urinary tract. Or, the surgery, radiation, or other prostate cancer treatments can lead to nerve damage, bladder spasms, or stress incontinence. Bladder control problems after prostate cancer can get better over time.
What else causes bladder control problems in women and men?
Other health problems, including those with your nervous system, and lifestyle factors can cause or contribute to urinary incontinence (UI) in women and men.
Health changes and problems
Certain health changes and problems can lead to urinary incontinence
- bladder infection
- birth defects
- blocked urinary tract—from a tumor or urinary stone
- chronic, or long-lasting, coughing
- overweight or obesity
Some health problems can be short-term, like coughing or constipation, and can cause temporary incontinence. When a disability or a problem speaking or thinking keeps you from reaching a toilet in time, you have functional incontinence.
Bladder nerves and muscles can be damaged or affected by
- Alzheimer’s disease
- Parkinson’s disease
- multiple sclerosis
- certain medicines
- spinal cord injury
Triggers of urinary incontinence can include drinking or touching water, hearing running water, or being in a cold environment, such as reaching into the freezer at the grocery store.
Lifestyle factors that make women and men more likely to develop UI include
- eating habits, such as eating foods that cause constipation
- drinking habits, such as drinking alcohol or caffeinated or carbonated beverages
- certain medicines
- physical inactivity
Temporary incontinence is usually a side effect of a medicine or short-term health condition. Temporary incontinence can also be a result of eating habits, including alcohol or caffeine use.
This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.