NIDDK Director's Update Fall 2013

Research Updates

Removing a protein enhances defense against bacteria in CGD mice: NIH study also suggests an alternative, adjunct approach to drug-resistant staph infections. Deletion of a protein in white blood cells improves their ability to fight the bacteria staphylococcus aureus and possibly other infections in mice with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), according to an NIH study published online August 1 in The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Duration of obesity may affect heart disease: How long a young adult is obese may affect that person’s heart disease risk in middle age, according to new research. The finding suggests that not only preventing but also delaying the onset of obesity can help reduce heart disease later in life. The findings were published on July 17 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

NIH expands study to better understand kidney disease progression: Researchers from the NIH-supported Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study are embarking on another five years of work to identify risk factors for progression of early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), better understand the importance of reduced kidney function in older persons, and learn what role CKD may play in other illnesses that require hospitalization.

NIH math model predicts effects of diet, physical activity on childhood weight: Findings suggest major differences between obese adults and children. NIH researchers have created and confirmed the accuracy of a mathematical model that predicts how weight and body fat in children respond to adjustments in diet and physical activity. The results appeared online July 30 in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology.

Urine test detects kidney transplant rejection: Levels of certain molecules in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can provide an early sign of transplant rejection, researchers found. The noninvasive urine test could allow doctors to intervene early and protect transplanted kidneys. Findings were published in the July 4 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Lifestyle intervention does not reduce CVD events, but shows other benefits for people with type 2 diabetes: The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), trial showed that an intensive weight loss intervention in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes improved cardiovascular risk factor control and reduced medication use but did not decrease the rate of cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke. Shorter-term effects of the intervention include improved sleep apnea, increased fitness, and reduced loss of mobility. Analyses of the longer-term health effects of the intervention are on-going. Primary results were published online June 24 in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY): Results show “significant public health consequences as these youth are likely to manifest the complications of diabetes, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease, at a time that should be the most active and productive of their lives,” according to a commentary by NIDDK staff in the June issue of Diabetes Care, accompanying several publications of results of the study.

NIH begins recruitment for long-term study of diabetes drug efficacy: NIH is looking for volunteers to take part in a study to compare the long-term benefits and risks of four widely used diabetes drugs in combination with metformin, the most common first-line medication for treating type 2 diabetes. Beginning recruitment in June, the project is called the Glycemia Reduction Approaches in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness (GRADE) Study.

NIH funds studies to improve type 2 and prediabetes treatment: Trials for adults and youth compare treatments in newly diagnosed people. NIH is looking for volunteers to take part in one of three clinical trials to improve and preserve the production of insulin in people with prediabetes or recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The project is called the Restoring Insulin Secretion study (RISE).

Hormone may help treat diabetes: A hormone called betatrophin prompts cells in the pancreas to multiply and produce more insulin. The finding in mice may lead to new ways to prevent or slow the progression of diabetes. Results were published on May 9 in Cell.

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