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About Funding Mechanisms

NIH uses several types of grants to support research projects. Each has special characteristics, uses, and guidelines. NIDDK supports the NIH funding mechanisms mentioned below. For some awards, however, the links below provide guidance about specific NIDDK support.

If you think you may qualify as a New Investigator or an Early Stage Investigator, review the New and Early Stage Investigator page.

View the collaborative grants comparison table to learn about the difference among a P01, RC2, and R01.
  1. R01 Research Project Grant

    Support a discrete, specified, circumscribed project to be performed by the named investigator(s) in an area representing his specific interest and competencies.

  2. R13 Research Conference Grant

    Supports recipient sponsored and directed international, national, or regional meetings, conferences, and workshops.

  3. R15 Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA)

    Supports small-scale research projects at educational institutions that provide baccalaureate or advanced degrees for a significant number of the Nation’s research scientists that have not been major recipients of NIH support.

  4. R18 Research Demonstration and Dissemination Project

    Provides support designed to develop, test, and evaluate health service activities, and to foster the application of existing knowledge for the control of categorical diseases.

  5. R21 Exploratory/Developmental Grant

    Supports a discrete, specified, circumscribed project to be performed by the named investigator(s) in an area representing his specific interest and competencies.

  6. R24 Resource-Related Research Project

    Supports research projects that will enhance the capability of resources to serve biomedical research.

  7. R25 Education Projects

    Support to develop and/or implement a program as it relates to a category in one or more of the areas of education, information, training, technical assistance, coordination, or evaluation.

  8. R34 Clinical Trial Planning Grant

    Supports the initial development of a clinical trial, including the establishment of the research team; the development of tools for data management and oversight; the development of a trial design and other essential elements of the study; and the collection of feasibility data.

  9. RC2 High Impact, Interdisciplinary Science in NIDDK Research Areas (RC2)

    Supports high impact ideas that may lay the foundation for new fields of investigation; accelerate breakthroughs; stimulate early and applied research on cutting-edge technologies; foster new approaches to improve the interactions among multi- and interdisciplinary research teams; or, advance the research enterprise in a way that could stimulate future growth and investments and advance public health and health care delivery.

  10. P01 Program Project Grant

    Supports a broadly based, multidisciplinary, often long-term research program which has a specific major objective or a basic theme.

  11. DP1 NIH Director’s Pioneer Award

    Supports individual scientists of exceptional creativity, who propose pioneering – and possibly transforming approaches – to major challenges in biomedical and behavioral research.

  12. DP2 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award

    Supports highly innovative research projects by new investigators in all areas of biomedical and behavioral research.

  13. DP3 Type 1 Diabetes Targeted Research Award

    Supports research tackling major challenges in type 1 diabetes and promotes new approaches to these challenges by scientific teams.

  14. DP5 Early Independence Award

    Supports the independent research project of a recent doctoral degree recipient.

  15. K05 Research Scientist Award

    Supports a research scientist qualified to pursue independent research which would extend the research program of the sponsoring institution, or to direct an essential part of this research program.

  16. S06 Native American Research Centers for Health (NARCH)

    Supports partnerships between American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes or tribally-based organizations and institutions that conduct intensive academic-level biomedical, behavioral and health services research.

  17. SC1 Research Enhancement Award

    Supports individual investigator-initiated research projects aimed at developing researchers at minority-serving institutions to a stage where they can transition successfully to other extramural support (R01 or equivalent).

  18. SC2 Pilot Research Project

    Supports individual investigator-initiated pilot research projects for faculty at minority-serving institutions to generate preliminary data for a more ambitious research project.

  19. SC3 Research Continuance Award

    Individual investigator-initiated research projects for faculty at MSIs to conduct research of limited scope in environments with limited research infrastructure/facilities.

  20. U01 Research Project Cooperative Agreement

    Supports a discrete, specified, circumscribed project to be performed by the named investigator(s) in an area representing his specific interest and competencies.

  21. U13 Research Conference Cooperative Agreement

    Supports international, national, or regional meetings, conferences, and workshops where substantial programmatic involvement is planned to assist the recipient.

  22. U34 Multi-Center Clinical Study Cooperative Agreement

    Supports a discrete, specified, circumscribed project to be performed by the named investigator(s) in an area representing his specific interest and competencies.

  23. UC4 High Impact Research and Research Infrastructure Cooperative Agreement Programs—Multi-Yr Funding

    Supports multi-year funded cooperative agreement research with high impact ideas that may lay the foundation for new fields of investigation; accelerate breakthroughs; stimulate early and applied research on cutting-edge technologies; foster new approaches to improve the interactions among multi- and interdisciplinary research teams; or, advance the research enterprise in a way that could stimulate future growth and investments and advance public health and health care delivery.

  24. X01 Resource Access Program

    Invites eligible institutions to seek access to NIH research resources. This includes programs where institutions will request access to submit to the resource. It also includes programs where access to a NIH research resource is needed to conduct research.

  25. X02 Preapplication

    A program to invite eligible institutions to submit a pre-application (also known as a "white paper" or "précis") to facilitate certain approaches or economies, such as reducing burden on the applicant community, for a funding opportunity

  1. R41/R42 Small Business Technology Transfer Grant (STTR)

    Supports cooperative R&D projects between small business concerns and research institutions to establish the technical merit and feasibility of ideas that have potential for commercialization. Awards are made to small business concerns only.

  2. R43/R44 Small Business Innovation Research Grant (SBIR)

    Supports projects to establish the technical merit and feasibility of R&D ideas which may ultimately lead to a commercial product(s) or service(s).

  3. SB1 Commercialization Readiness Program (CRP)

    To support follow-on awards to small businesses for technology development, testing, evaluation, and commercialization assistance for SBIR or STTR Phase II technologies or for awards to small businesses to support the progress of research, research and development, and commercialization conducted under the SBIR or STTR programs to Phase III. 

  1. F30 Individual Predoctoral National Research Service Award (NRSA) for M.D./Ph.D. Fellowship

    Support for students enrolled in M.D./Ph.D., or equivalent, combined degree programs once they have identified a dissertation project.

  2. F31 Individual Predoctoral National Research Service Award (NRSA)

    Support for students enrolled in a doctoral degree program (usually Ph.D.) once they have identified a mentor and have chosen a dissertation research project.

  3. F32 Individual Postdoctoral National Research Service Award (NRSA)

    Supports postdoctoral fellows to pursue mentored research training prior to applying for a faculty position.

  4. K01 Research Scientist Development Award

    Supports basic scientists (non-clinicians) as they transition to independence and develop their careers with the support of a mentor.

  5. K08 Clinical Investigator Award

    Supports early clinician scientists who are transitioning to independence in a junior faculty position while pursuing a basic or clinical research project and developing their career.

  6. K12 Physician Scientist Award

    Award to an institution to support several individuals as they transition from fellowship to faculty while pursuing a research project with the help of a mentor(s).

  7. K23 Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Career Development Award

    Supports the career development of investigators who have made a commitment to focus their research endeavors on patient-oriented research. Supports early clinician scientists who are transitioning to independence in a junior faculty position and developing their career while pursuing a clinical research project that involves direct patient contact and the support of a mentor(s).

  8. K25 Mentored Quantitative Research Career Development Award

    Supports highly productive postdoctoral fellows pursuing  mentored research projects while looking for faculty appointments. 

  9. K99/R00 Pathway to Independence Award

    Supports the initial phase of a Career/Research Transition award program that provides 1-2 years of mentored support for highly motivated, advanced postdoctoral research scientists.

  10. L30 Loan Repayment Program for Clinical Researchers

    NIH may repay up to $35,000 of your qualified student loan debt per year, including most undergraduate, graduate, and medical school loans if you are actively engaged in clinical research.

  11. L40 Loan Repayment Program for Pediatric Researchers

    NIH may repay up to $35,000 of your qualified student loan debt per year, including most undergraduate, graduate, and medical school loans if you are actively engaged in research related to a pediatric disease or disease model.

  12. P01 Program Project Grant

    Supports a broadly based, multidisciplinary, often long-term research program which has a specific major objective or a basic theme.

  13. R03 Small Research Grant Program

    Supports research projects that can be completed in a 2-yr time frame. NIDDK does not participate in the parent FOA for R03s, but issues FOAs for specific audiences, e.g. NIDDK- supported K01, K08, and K23 awardees.

  14. R25 Education Projects

    Support to develop and/or implement a program as it relates to a category in one or more of the areas of education, information, training, technical assistance, coordination, or evaluation.

  15. S06 Native American Research Centers for Health (NARCH)

    Supports partnerships between American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes or tribally-based organizations and institutions that conduct intensive academic-level biomedical, behavioral and health services research.

  16. SC1 Research Enhancement Award

    Supports individual investigator-initiated research projects aimed at developing researchers at minority-serving institutions to a stage where they can transition successfully to other extramural support (R01 or equivalent).

  17. SC2 Pilot Research Project

    Supports individual investigator-initiated pilot research projects for faculty at minority-serving institutions to generate preliminary data for a more ambitious research project.

  18. SC3 Research Continuance Award

    Individual investigator-initiated research projects for faculty at MSIs to conduct research of limited scope in environments with limited research infrastructure/facilities.

  19. T32 Institutional National Research Service Award (NRSA)

    Award to an institution to support several individuals, selected by the institution, in either short-term, predoctoral, and/or postdoctoral training positions with experienced mentors.  

  20. T32 Medical Student Research Training Supplement

    Additional slot awarded to an existing training grant for either a specific medical student wishing to take a year off from school to pursue research training or for a pre- or post-doctoral trainee from a group underrepresented in biomedical research, when no slot is available on the training grant.

  21. T32 NRSA Diversity Supplement Award

    Additional slot awarded to an existing training grant for either a specific medical student wishing to take a year off from school to pursue research training or for a pre- or post-doctoral trainee from a group underrepresented in biomedical research, when no slot is available on the training grant.

  22. T35 Short-Term National Research Service Award (NRSA)

    Provides 2-3 months of support for medical students, selected by the institution, to pursue research training during off-quarters or summer periods.

  23. X01 Resource Access Program

    Invites eligible institutions to seek access to NIH research resources. This includes programs where institutions will request access to submit to the resource. It also includes programs where access to a NIH research resource is needed to conduct research.

  24. X02 Preapplication

    A program to invite eligible institutions to submit a pre-application (also known as a "white paper" or "précis") to facilitate certain approaches or economies, such as reducing burden on the applicant community, for a funding opportunity

  1. P20 Center Exploratory Grant

    Supports planning for new programs, modification of existing resources, and feasibility studies to explore various approaches to the development of interdisciplinary programs that offer potential solutions to problems of significance to the NIH.

  2. P30 Center Core Grant

    Supports shared resources and facilities for categorical research by a number of investigators who provide a multidisciplinary approach to a joint research effort.

  3. P50 Specialized Center Grant

    Supports any part of the full range of research and development from very basic to clinical; may involve ancillary supporting activities such as protracted patient care necessary to the primary research or R&D effort.

  4. S06 Native American Research Centers for Health (NARCH)

    Supports partnerships between American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes or tribally-based organizations and institutions that conduct intensive academic-level biomedical, behavioral and health services research.

  5. U54 Specialized Center Cooperative Agreement

    Supports any part of research and development from very basic to clinical; may involve ancillary supportive activities such as protracted patient care necessary to the primary research or R&D effort.

  6. UH2/UH3 Exploratory/Developmental Cooperative Agreement Phase I and II

    To support the development of new research activities (UH2) and potentially expand on these activities during a second phase (UH3).

  7. X01 Resource Access Program

    Invites eligible institutions to seek access to NIH research resources. This includes programs where institutions will request access to submit to the resource. It also includes programs where access to a NIH research resource is needed to conduct research.